X-rays (X-ray studies)

Contrast Ventriculography

Contrast ventriculography (VG) is one of the important catheterization angiography techniques. Ventriculography is the contrast of the ventricle of the heart with the recording of an image on a film or other recording device (videotape, computer hard or CD-ROM).

Contrast dacryocystography

Dacryocystography is also informative in the diagnosis of diverticulum, fistula and filling defects caused by stones or tumors.


Amniography is an x-ray method of investigation, which has the advantages over the conventional radiographic method that it is possible to diagnose soft tissue pathology, some gastrointestinal tract defects and skeletal pathology.


Pneumopyelviography (gynecography, gas pelviography, PPG) is the introduction of gas into the abdominal cavity with the subsequent radiographic examination of the pelvic organs. The method is being replaced by laparoscopy and ultrasound.

Bicontrast gynecography

Bicontrast gynecography is a combination of hysterosalpingography with pneumogynecography. Produced in the 2 nd phase of the menstrual cycle. Use carbon dioxide, oxygen or nitrous oxide. The patient is given a position according to Trendelenburg. To get a clear radiographic picture of the uterus and ovaries, careful preparation of the patient is necessary.

Cerebral and Spinal Angiography

Cerebral and spinal angiography is the method of X-ray examination of the vascular system of the brain and spinal cord.


Myelography is a method of investigation of the cerebrospinal fluid system. It is carried out by puncturing the joke of a different space of the spinal cord and introducing a water-soluble contrast agent there.

Cardioangiography and cardiac catheterization

The introduction of a catheter through an artery or vein into the heart cavity provides information on the magnitude of the pressure, the nature of the blood flow, the oxygenation of blood obtained from different chambers, and when introducing a contrast agent and subsequent cardioangiography, evaluate the morphological features. These studies make it possible to obtain high-precision information on morphological and functional changes in the heart and to solve various diagnostic, and increasingly, therapeutic problems.


Arthrography is used for refined diagnosis of temporomandibular joint diseases, primarily for assessing the condition of the intraarticular meniscus.

X-ray of the maxillofacial region (x-ray of the teeth)

In dental practice, traditional methods of X-ray examination are still used mainly. The method of choice is radiography. Radiography of the maxillofacial region is rarely performed: in some cases, with trauma, to determine the location of foreign bodies, with angio- and sialography. However, radiography is usually combined with radiography.


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