Endocrine system in children has a very complex multi-level structure and multi-loop regulation with the possibilities of both external control through mechanisms of adaptation to environmental factors and internal homeostasis through negative feedback circuits.
The metabolic processes in children and adults consist of assimilation processes - the assimilation of substances entering the body from the environment, transforming them into simpler substances suitable for subsequent synthesis, the synthesis of substances themselves, or "blocks" - "details" for constructing one's own living matter or energy.
In the human body, there are numerous hormone-producing cells originating from neural cristae neuroblasts, ecto- and endoderms. These cells produce neuroamines and oligopeptides that have a hormonal and biologically active effect.
The pineal body (pineal gland, epiphysis of the brain, corpus pineale, s.glandula pinealis, s.epiphisis cerebri) refers to the epithelamus of the diencephalon and is located in a shallow furrow separating the upper mounds of the midbrain roof.
Adrenal glandula (glandula suprarenalis) - the paired organ is located in the retroperitoneum directly above the upper end of the corresponding kidney. The adrenal gland has the form of a flattened front-to-back irregularly shaped cone.
The pancreas consists of the exocrine and endocrine parts. The endocrine part of the pancreas (pars endocrina pancreatis) is represented by groups of epithelial cells forming a peculiar form of pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans, insulae pancreaticae) separated from the exocrine part of the gland by thin connective tissue layers.
Paired upper parathyroid gland (glandula parathyroidea superior) and inferior parathyroid gland (glandula parathyroidea inferior) are rounded or ovoid bodies located on the posterior surface of each of the thyroid glands: one gland above and the other at the bottom.