Endocrine system

Energy exchange of man

The predominant use of carbohydrates, fats, proteins and alcohol has different characteristics in terms of energy metabolism and associated metabolic shifts.

Endocrine system in children

Endocrine system in children has a very complex multi-level structure and multi-loop regulation with the possibilities of both external control through mechanisms of adaptation to environmental factors and internal homeostasis through negative feedback circuits.

Metabolism in children

The metabolic processes in children and adults consist of assimilation processes - the assimilation of substances entering the body from the environment, transforming them into simpler substances suitable for subsequent synthesis, the synthesis of substances themselves, or "blocks" - "details" for constructing one's own living matter or energy.

The parathyroid glands

Most healthy people have four parathyroid glands - the two upper and two lower ones, located relatively symmetrically on both sides in more than 80% of cases.

Diffuse neuroendocrine system (APUD-system)

In the human body, there are numerous hormone-producing cells originating from neural cristae neuroblasts, ecto- and endoderms. These cells produce neuroamines and oligopeptides that have a hormonal and biologically active effect.

Pineal body (epiphysis)

The pineal body (pineal gland, epiphysis of the brain, corpus pineale, s.glandula pinealis, s.epiphisis cerebri) refers to the epithelamus of the diencephalon and is located in a shallow furrow separating the upper mounds of the midbrain roof.


Adrenal glandula (glandula suprarenalis) - the paired organ is located in the retroperitoneum directly above the upper end of the corresponding kidney. The adrenal gland has the form of a flattened front-to-back irregularly shaped cone.

Endocrine part of the gonads

The testis in men and the ovary in women, in addition to reproductive cells, produce and release into the blood sex hormones, under the influence of which secondary sexual characteristics are formed.

Endocrine part of the pancreas

The pancreas consists of the exocrine and endocrine parts. The endocrine part of the pancreas (pars endocrina pancreatis) is represented by groups of epithelial cells forming a peculiar form of pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans, insulae pancreaticae) separated from the exocrine part of the gland by thin connective tissue layers.

Parathyroid glands

Paired upper parathyroid gland (glandula parathyroidea superior) and inferior parathyroid gland (glandula parathyroidea inferior) are rounded or ovoid bodies located on the posterior surface of each of the thyroid glands: one gland above and the other at the bottom.