The immune system

Specific immunity: development and development

Specific immunological reactions are performed by the body's immune system, consisting of central and peripheral immunogenesis organs. Specific immunity when exposed to a specific antigen is carried out by T- and B-lymphocytes. The intrauterine period demonstrates the intensive dynamics of maturation of the lymphoid system.

Age-related changes in cellular immunity in children

In the diagnosis of various disease states in the immunocompetent system of both the fetus and the newborn child and children of later life periods, methods of determining the degree of maturity and differentiation of individual populations or subpopulations of lymphocytes are of great importance.

Classes of immunoglobulins and their age dynamics

Human immunoglobulins are fairly heterogeneous and are represented by 5 classes and several subclasses. They are detected in the blood in different age periods and at different times reach the concentrations peculiar to adults. ω α γ β

Congenital immunity

Innate immunity (natural, hereditary, nonspecific resistance) to neutralize the antigen uses nonspecific defense factors, in contrast to acquired immunity, which protects against strictly defined antigens.

Lymph nodes and immune system

Lymph nodes (hodi lymphatici) are the most numerous organs of the immune system, they serve as biological filters for the lymph (tissue fluid) flowing through them.


The spleen (lien, s.splen) performs the functions of immune control of blood. It is located on the path of blood flow from the main vessel of the great circle of blood circulation - the aorta into the portal vein system, branching in the liver.

Lymphoid plaques of the small intestine

Lymphoid plaques (noduli lymphoidei aggregati), or, as they are also called, Peyer's plaques, are nodular clumps of lymphoid tissue. Plaques are located in the walls of the small intestine, mainly its terminal part - the ileum, in the thickness of the mucosa and in the submucosa. In these places, the muscular plate of the mucous membrane is interrupted or absent.

Single lymphoid nodules

Single lymphoid nodules (noduli lymphoidei solitarii) are found in the thickness of the mucosa and in the submucosa of the digestive system (pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, gallbladder), respiratory organs (larynx, trachea, major, lobar and segmental bronchi ), as well as in the walls of the ureters, bladder, urethra.

Lymphoid nodules of the appendix

The lymphoid nodules of the appendix (noduli lymphoidei appendicis vermiformis) during their maximum development (after birth and up to 16-17 years of age) are located in the mucosa and submucosa throughout the entire body - from its base (near the cecum) up to the top.

Tubular tonsil

The tubal tonsil (tonsilla tubaria) is a paired, aggregate of lymphoid tissue in the form of an interrupted plate in the thickness of the mucous membrane of the tube roller, in the region of the pharyngeal opening and the cartilaginous part of the auditory tube.