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Blood test for the presence of cancer cells in the body: the name how to pass

Today, in medicine, they are increasingly confronted with oncological diseases. Despite the wide spread of cancerous tumors, the mechanism of their formation and spreading is still unexplored.

Analyzes for breast cancer

Diagnosis of cancer can not be imagined without testing, and tests for breast cancer are included in the list of mandatory studies performed after mammography.

Breast cancer markers

Analysis for mammary cancer markers - immunochemical blood test - is performed during the diagnosis and treatment of breast tumors, along with diagnostic procedures such as mammography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Algorithm for detecting cancer markers

Specificity of tumor markers - the percentage of healthy individuals and patients with benign tumors, in which the test gives a negative result. The sensitivity of the oncomarker is the percentage of results that are truly positive in the presence of this tumor.

Beta 2-microglobulin in the blood and urine

Beta2-microglobulin is a low-molecular protein of surface antigens of cell nuclei. Its presence in the blood serum is due to the processes of degradation and repair of individual cell elements.

Tumor antigen of the urinary bladder in the urine

Bladder antigen (BTA) detection in the urine is a screening method for diagnosing bladder cancer, as well as for dynamic monitoring of patients after surgical treatment. Antigens are detected in 70-80% of patients with bladder cancer in stage T1-T3 and in 58% with cancer in situ.

Oncological marker CA 242 in the blood

CA 242 is a glycoprotein that is expressed on the same mucin apoprotein as CA 19-9. In benign tumors, CA 242 expression is low, while for malignant tumors its expression is significantly higher than CA 19-9.

HER-2 / neu markers in the blood

An increase in serum HER-2 / neu concentration is observed in women with breast cancer, especially in the presence of metastases. The value of 15 ng / ml is used as the separation point.

Fragment of cytokeratin 19 in the blood

CYFRA-21-1 is a marker of non-small cell carcinoma of the lung. With a specificity of 95%, CYFRA-21-1 has a significantly higher sensitivity (49%) than CEA (29%). The sensitivity of CYFRA-21-1 in squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs is much higher (60%) than the sensitivity of CEA (18%).

Neuron-specific blood enolase

An increase in the concentration of neuron-specific enolase in the blood serum takes place in small-cell lung cancer and neuroblastoma, leukemia, after radiation and X-ray therapy, after an X-ray examination.

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