What can be more pleasant than looking at a smiling child or happy parents. Looking at their sincere feelings, expressing love, joy, hope, and involuntarily you begin to smile, feeling the inside of a pleasant warmth.
Erythropoietin is a renal hormone that controls erythropoiesis. Active erythropoietin is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 51,000. Approximately 90% of erythropoietin is synthesized in the cells of the capillaries of the renal glomeruli and up to 10% produces liver cells.
Histamine is found mainly in basophilic leukocytes and mast cells. In smaller amounts, it is found in the liver, kidneys, intestinal cells. In the human body, histamine is formed during the decarboxylation of histidine.
5-Oxyindoleacetic (5-hydroxyindolylacetic) acid is the final product of the metabolism of serotonin. The determination of its concentration in the urine is more useful than the study of the level of serotonin in the blood for the diagnosis of carcinoid tumors.
Serotonin (oxytryptamine) is a biogenic amine, which is mainly contained in platelets. The body constantly circulates up to 10 mg of serotonin. From 80 to 95% of the total amount of serotonin in the body is synthesized and stored in enterochromaffin cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Serotonin is formed from tryptophan as a result of decarboxylation.
Pepsinogen I - the precursor of pepsin, is produced mainly by the main cells of the gland of the body of the stomach. A small part of pepsinogen I enters the blood, where its concentration is 6 times higher than that of pepsinogen II. Normally, pepsinogen I is found in the urine.
Gastrin 17 (G-17) is almost exclusively produced by antrum G cells of the gastric mucosa, consists of 17 amino acids and is a mature hormone. The release of gastrin 17 is enhanced under the influence of the vagus nerve, and also due to mechanical and chemical stimulation of the antral part of the stomach.
Gastrin is formed in the G cells of the antral part of the stomach and is synthesized in small amounts in the mucosa of the small intestine. The main forms of gastrin (G) in the blood plasma are G-34 (a large gastrin, with a half-life of 42 min), G-17 (a small gastrin, with a half-life of 5 min) and G-14 (minigastrin, with a half-life of 5 min) .
Glucagon is a polypeptide consisting of 29 amino acid residues. It has a short half-life (several minutes) and is a functional insulin antagonist. Glucagon predominantly forms α-cells of the pancreas, duodenum, however, secretion by ectopic cells in the bronchi and kidneys is possible.