Poisoning with nitrites, sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, as well as chlorates, sulfonamides, aniline dyes, nitrobenzene, antimalarial drugs, butyl nitrite or amylnitrite can cause methemoglobinemia.
Carbon monoxide (CO, carbon monoxide, carbon monoxide) is a gas without color, taste and smell, which does not cause irritation, an incomplete combustion product. It is a part of many industrial gases (blast furnace, generator, coke); the content of carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines can reach 1-13%.
Ethylene glycol (CH2OHCH2OH) is a dihydric alcohol widely used in heat exchangers, antifreeze compositions and as an industrial solvent. When ingested, ethylene glycol is rapidly absorbed into the stomach and intestines.
Methanol (CH3OH, wood alcohol, methyl alcohol) can be absorbed through the skin, respiratory tract or gastrointestinal tract. When ingested in the gastrointestinal tract, methanol is rapidly absorbed and distributed in the body fluids. The main mechanism of elimination of methanol in humans is oxidation to formaldehyde, formic acid and CO2.
Ethyl alcohol (ethanol, C2H5OH) has a sedative-hypnotic effect. When ingested, ethanol, as well as methanol, ethylene glycol and other alcohols, is easily absorbed from the stomach (20%) and the small intestine (80%) due to its low molecular weight and lipid solubility.
Toxicological studies play a crucial role in the diagnosis of various poisoning. When conducting specific toxicological studies, it is very important to obtain the results of the assays as soon as possible (1-2 hours).