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What do spider veins look like on the face, body and legs?

Medical expert of the article

Dermatologist, onkodermatolog
, medical expert
Last reviewed: 04.09.2021

It is so accepted that a person is adorned with clean skin without any flaws. It is unlikely that a cute mole on the cheek can spoil the aesthetic appearance. But scars, large birthmarks, acne, pockmarks, telangiectasias have never been considered attractive. Among all of the above, anomalies called telangiectasias are of particular interest. This name has vascular defects or reddish asterisks, nets, twigs, points from small vessels, which can appear in both sick and healthy people. Many people know from their own experience how spider veins look on the body, but have no idea how to deal with this scourge. Others do not even know what it is about. But the one who is forewarned is armed, so we will try to give useful information to both.

A little about spider veins

Spider veins, capillary nets or spiders are neoplasms consisting of small-caliber dilated vessels. These include:

  • Capillaries are the smallest vessels with a diameter of about 5-10 microns, in which gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) are exchanged and arterial blood is replaced by venous blood.
  • Venules are small vessels with a diameter of 12-28 microns, which are a continuation of the capillaries and ensure the outflow of venous blood from them with a large amount of carbon dioxide.
  • Arterioles are small blood vessels that supply arterial, oxygen-rich blood to the capillaries. As part of vascular networks, they are usually represented by their terminal segments, i.e. Those areas that are adjacent to the capillaries and have the smallest diameter.

Most often, the walls of the venules and capillaries are stretched. The arterial vessels have an elastic and durable three-layer shell, designed for the high pressure of the blood coming from the heart. Only a disorder of trophic function and metabolism can disturb the properties of the elastic muscular membrane. Venules, which provide blood flow to the heart at a lower pressure, are not designed for heavy loads. Their walls are less durable and elastic, lend themselves easily to stretching and are not able to fully recover their shape.

Quite easily, under excessive loads and clamping, the capillaries, the walls of which are permeable and consist of only one layer, change their shape. With high blood pressure, they are prone to rupture and hemorrhage. [1]

The change in the shape of the vessel can be both local and extensive. But with the naked eye, we see only areas of expansion that lie closer to the surface of the skin. Expanding, the wall of the vessel in these places becomes thinner and the contents of the vessels shine through it, i.e. Blood.

Our body and skin are permeated with many intertwining small vessels. If there is only one enlarged area in the surface layers of the skin, we can see a dot or strip of a darker color than the surrounding skin. From how close it is to the epidermis, its color will also change (from brownish to brown, red or purple).

If the elasticity of the walls of several small vessels at once is disturbed in a local area, we see a vascular mesh like a spider of different shades of red.

How spider veins look like depends not only on the number and location of the affected vessels, but also on their type. In the arterial vessels, the blood is scarlet, and such telangiectasias will have a red color. The blood in the venules is the darkest, so the neoplasms of them will be dark red, burgundy and purple. Capillaries are very thin vessels, therefore, regardless of the composition of the blood in them and its oxygen content, the dilations are seen as red defects with a slight variation in shades.

Despite the beautiful alternative name, vascular abnormalities are not considered welcome guests on the skin. And not only because of the unaesthetic appearance. These unusual anomalies have an ambiguous origin and it can be very difficult and sometimes impossible to determine the cause of their occurrence.

In some cases, spider veins can be seen as a symptom of the disease. The appearance of venous nodules and asterisks, associated with a violation of microcirculation in the veins and a violation of tissue trophism, is observed with varicose veins. In acute and chronic liver diseases (cirrhosis, hepatitis), the appearance of vascular anomalies resembling spiders in shape is associated with organ dysfunction and hormonal disorders. The fact is that in addition to eliminating toxins, the liver has other responsibilities. So she is actively involved in the metabolism of many hormones, including estrogen. The liver removes from the body excess vasoactive substances (adrenaline, bradykinin, etc.), which cause vasodilation.

Violation of the metabolic processes of female and male hormones (estrogen and testosterone), as well as hormonal substances that affect the vessels, is precisely the reason for the appearance of vascular networks in liver diseases.

When it comes to chronic diseases, vascular elements will be present on the body constantly. And those defects that are associated with temporary disturbances (hormonal disruptions in acute liver pathologies) usually disappear after the normalization of health.  [2]

Due to the imbalance of hormones, vascular formations can occur during pregnancy and with the onset of menopause. Their appearance is also facilitated by the use of hormonal contraceptives. Injuries to the skin are considered a non-hormonal cause of temporary red spots and meshes on the body. If the  cause of the appearance of telangiectasias  can be eradicated, and tissue trophism is not disturbed, the neoplasms usually disappear on their own.

Symptoms of the spider veins

We have already said that the appearance of spider veins can have different causes. Some of them are pathological. And since it is possible to determine by eye only the nature of the vessel, but in no way the cause of its expansion, the appearance of telangiectasias should be considered as a signal of possible ill health.

Often, spider veins act as the first signs of liver disease, occurring in an acute form. This organ is poorly supplied with nerve fibers, so pain in it is not always felt and not immediately (usually at the stage of cancer, with an abscess or syphilitic lesion). Liver diseases are most often judged by their external manifestations: the appearance of spider veins, yellowing of the skin and palms, a change in the color of urine and feces. [3]

In the chronic course of cardiovascular and hepatic diseases, neoplasms from small vessels are constantly present, but the severity of the anomaly depends on the period of the disease (exacerbation or remission) and the duration of its course.

Telangiectasias can be of various shapes and sizes:

  • Linear form. Neoplasms in the form of stripes from a red to purple hue, depending on the type of vessels. Most often, spider veins with localization on the legs, differing in darker shades, have this form. These are enlarged areas of small veins.
  • Dot spider veins are also the result of a local lesion (expansion or rupture of the wall with punctate hemorrhage) of one small vessel: a capillary, vein, or arteriole. The color of the neoplasm depends on the type of vessel and the age of its damage.
  • Vascular spiders. They have in the center a red nodule that rises above the surface of the skin and is formed as a result of rupture of the wall of one or several vessels close in location. From which thin capillary rays depart in different directions. They usually have a light red color of various shades.
  • Vascular trees. In this case, the subcutaneous pattern resembles a branch of a tree with multiple thin branches. Its color depends on the type of vessels.
  • Capillary mesh. A kind of spider veins from the interlacing of dilated capillaries without damaging their walls.

Taking into account how the spider veins look, what color and location they have, one can suspect that one has specific diseases. The accuracy of such a diagnosis, of course, is low, but it allows you to think about your health and once again visit a doctor.

Couperose

Cosmetologists call couperose an anomaly of small vessels with localization in the face area, in which they become visible to the naked eye. This takes into account not how the spider veins look (shape, color, size), but their localization. In dermatology, spider veins, wherever they appear, are called  telangiectasias .

Spider veins on the face and neck are especially common in people with thin, sensitive skin, especially if it is exposed to aggressive environmental factors (active sun, wind, frost). Many people, entering the house from frost, notice tree-like spider veins on their cheeks.

The skin of the face is usually softer than most of the rest of the human body, and moreover, it is more exposed to negative external influences than other areas. You can only protect yourself from the negative factors of the outside world with the help of special creams. But even their use does not always help to avoid the appearance of unwanted "decorations". Fortunately, such neoplasms disappear rather quickly when the body adapts to the ambient temperature.

Especially thin skin on our face in the eye area (around them). It is easily vulnerable, and any minor injury can lead to the appearance of a vascular mesh under the eyes or on the eyelids. In women, the skin is more delicate, the beauty of which they maintain with various cosmetics. Some of these drugs can cause allergies, in which an increased amount of histamine, a hormone-like substance that can dilate blood vessels, is released into the blood. Hence, lacrimation, allergic rhinitis, local expansion of blood vessels and hyperemic areas with a visible capillary mesh.

Spider veins on the eyelids can appear as a result of trauma to the eyelids when rubbing the eyes or applying cosmetics (eyeliner, mascara), an allergic reaction or exposure to aggressive environmental factors.

Spider veins on the lips are most often the result of injury or infection. They can appear near herpetic eruptions, in the corners of the lips when they bite. Telangiectasias above the upper lip are often the result of antennae removal. Pulling out the hair follicle may be accompanied by rupture of the capillaries feeding it. Violation of microcirculation at the rupture site leads to the formation of red dots and small capillary spiders. [4]

Telangiectasias in the forehead, cheeks and chin are often a consequence of combating acne. In place of the squeezed pimple, as a result of pressure on small vessels located in the upper and deeper layers of the skin, as well as the rupture of their membranes, red dots, irregular specks, linear and branched patterns of different shades of red remain. At the same time, not only mechanical, but also chemical effects (allergy to creams and lotions, the use of alcohol-containing compounds for disinfection and cauterization) can lead to vasodilation.

Spider veins on the nose can appear both under the influence of negative environmental factors and after mechanical damage to the vessels. The latter is possible not only when removing acne in various ways, but also as a result of a runny nose (as a result of constant friction of the fingers against the skin of the wings of the nose, the latter turn red and red veins appear on them).

Spider veins on the arms and legs

The thickness of the skin on different parts of the body is not the same for different people. If you compare the hands of different people of the same sex, you can see that in some the vascular pattern is clearly visible (these are the owners of thin skin with a small fat layer), while in others it seems that it does not exist at all. Under the influence of cold, wind, solar radiation, thermal factors, such pictures from red trees can become brighter, which is a normal vascular reaction.

The blood vessels on the arms also swell when carrying heavy loads, straining the arms, squeezing a limb. In this case, even large vessels are usually visible, and small arachnid formations appear only in places of capillary rupture. Those. How the spider veins look on the limbs depends on the processes occurring at the place of their appearance. This applies to both cancer and legs.

Spider veins on the hands can appear both on their upper part (more often on the forearm and wrist), and in the area of the hand (its back and palms). And it’s worth dwelling on this point in more detail. The appearance of persistent redness of the palms and vascular pattern on them is considered one of the signs of various liver diseases, accompanied by organ dysfunction. "Liver" palms can be seen in patients with liver cirrhosis, hepatitis, abscess and liver cancer.

Telangiectasias on the dorsum of the hand usually result from trauma (mechanical, thermal, or chemical) that causes local vasodilation or impaired blood microcirculation. They are also possible in the area of the palms, but in this case symmetry is not traced (in case of diseases, both palms turn red, a pattern from the vessels appears in approximately the same places on both hands).

Even more often, spider veins appear on the legs (usually on the thighs and legs, in isolated cases on the feet). The skin of the feet is usually coarser and thicker, so the vessels are not visible through it. Vessels dilated due to a blow, injury or thermal burn can be observed only in those who carefully monitor the skin of the legs, regularly peeling and removing coarse skin. True, sometimes an unprofessionally made peeling just becomes the cause of skin injury and a reaction to this of the vessels. [5]

Spider veins on the thighs and lower legs often appear in those whose work requires a long stay on their feet, as well as those who have sedentary work. In the latter case, the risk of getting such a "decoration" is higher for those who like to sit cross-legged, because it is in this position of the limbs that blood circulation through the vessels is disrupted, the pressure in them increases, which causes an increase in diameter.

Regular impairment of venous outflow due to disorders of microcirculation and metabolic processes ultimately leads to the development of vascular pathologies, the most common of which is varicose veins. With this pathology, persistent swelling of the veins appears on the lower leg and thighs with the appearance of nodules and a linear or branched dark red with a bluish tint on the skin.

If the appearance of vascular images is caused by overstrain of the legs, carrying weights, walking in high heels, they will soon disappear, if only the legs have a rest. But if such violence is repeated regularly, after a while the venules already lose their ability to recover, they stretch (stronger in length), and bend under the skin, which is why they become clearly visible against the background of the skin.

Spider veins on the thighs sometimes have different shapes, sizes and shades. A similar picture is often observed with overweight and obesity, when the risk of varicose veins increases. In obese people, not only venous, but also arterial vessels experience an increased load, therefore telangiectasias can have an unequal shade. At the same time, the fat layer does not interfere with the contemplation of the pattern, because we see only those vessels that come close to the outer word of the skin (epidermis), and the subcutaneous tissue is located much lower.

Telangiectasias can appear on the thighs of women with cellulite. In this case, they can be expected in other places covered with "orange peel" (on the buttocks, fat deposits in the abdomen, upper arms, etc.).

Spider veins on the body

We have already said that telangiectasias can appear in different parts of the human body. And even those that are usually covered with clothes and are rarely injured. They can occur wherever there is a violation of blood microcirculation or vasodilatation, appear during thermal exposure to the skin or injuries, in places where metabolic processes are disturbed.

The appearance of spider veins on the chest and shoulders, as the most unprotected parts of the body, is usually seasonal. They are most visible in people with fair skin when exposed to the sun. Their tan is an almost continuous capillary network, the result of a slight skin burn. It is clear that few people take such an event seriously or with apprehension. And even more severe burns, when a bright capillary mesh reminds of itself for several days, rarely stop those who want to have tanned skin. And this despite the fact that almost all media outlets say that solar radiation is one of the important factors in the development of skin cancer. [6]

But the appearance of individual "spiders" near the mammary glands is certainly impossible to treat lightly. In this case, the fact of how the spider veins look is of decisive importance. The spider veins can be seen on a full breast when the baby is feeding, when the skin and blood vessels underneath are stretched. But the appearance of local small arachnoid telangiectasias on the skin should be alarming. It is precisely such defects that do not disappear for a long time that should be alarming, because if there was no injury, then what else could cause impaired blood flow and vasodilation?

True, during pregnancy, menopause, after abortion, when vascular changes are caused by hormonal changes, as well as as a result of the use of hormonal contraceptives, spider veins can appear on different parts of the body, without indicating any pathology.

Spider veins on the upper torso can appear in both women and fair-skinned men. The latter love to walk with an open torso in sunny weather, and at the site of sunburns they can see redness with a visible vascular network.

Spider veins on the back can be the result of sunburn or squeezing of acne of the corresponding localization, as well as a symptom of liver dysfunction. With dysfunction of this organ and the biliary tract, a rash of small spider veins in the face and back is often observed. The skin on the back is not particularly tender, therefore, telangiectasias do not appear here without a reason.

The same can be said for the spider veins on the abdomen. With liver pathologies, they can be quite large and branched, the color of the translucent vessels is bluish. A similar picture is observed when venous outflow is impaired as a result of a decrease in the possibility and rate of blood passage through a diseased liver in pathologies such as cancer or cirrhosis of the liver. Hepatic spider veins of such localization are compared to the head of a jellyfish, since they cover the swollen abdomen of the patient, while it seems that he, like the cap of the jellyfish, is translucent through.

The appearance of small stars, linear or sinuous stripes, red dots on the abdomen, sides and buttocks can be a sign of cellulite or squeezing of blood vessels in the waist and pelvis with a belt, elastic elastic band, rough seams on clothes. In the second case, telangiectasias quickly disappear if the cause of them is removed.

Spider veins in the genital area and perineum indicate a violation of venous blood flow in the pelvic area, which can be the result of sedentary work or wearing too tight underwear with coarse seams. [7]

Telangiectasia during pregnancy

Not only special drugs used in cardiology (vasodilators), but also some biologically active substances have the ability to dilate blood vessels. It is this property of histamine and other hormone-like substances that underlies the action of many of these drugs. The fact that the level of production of some vasoactive hormones increases during pregnancy explains the high incidence of spider veins in expectant mothers.

Female and male sex hormones can cause an increase in the lumen of small vessels. When they are normal, there is nothing to be afraid of. But in women, the level of estrogen jumps during pregnancy, because it is necessary for the normal development of the placenta and the fetus in it. This is an elementary explanation for the appearance of telangiectasias in pregnant women.

Regardless of how spider veins look during pregnancy, the reason for their appearance during the period of hormonal changes in all women is the same. Rather, it is a stable set of non-pathological causes. Changes in hormone levels, weight gain, and hence the load on the legs and heart, stretching of the tissues in the abdomen with each month of pregnancy.

On the abdomen, the increased visibility of blood vessels can be explained by the stretching of the skin on it as the child grows (stretched skin is thinner and more transparent). In this case, the veins are also stretched (mainly in length) due to their plasticity.

Temporary spider veins on the legs can appear after long walks due to the increasing load on the legs. But the forced or unreasonable sedentary lifestyle of the expectant mother can cause venous stasis in the pelvic region, and telangiectasias will become chronic.

If in the body of the future mother there are no metabolic disorders that change the properties of muscle and connective tissue, then after childbirth the abdomen is restored and spider veins disappear as this happens. But even if they do not disappear for a long time, the cause will not necessarily be pathological.

A possible reason is the use of hormonal contraceptives, the action of which is based on the correction of hormonal levels. And although here we are no longer talking about a high level of estrogen, you need to understand that any fluctuations in the hormonal background will affect the state of the body and, in particular, the characteristics of the vascular walls. For example, with menopause in women, estrogen levels are significantly reduced, but the risk of spider veins increases (and not only in connection with varicose veins). The fact is that natural estrogens not only correlate the diameter of blood vessels, but also improve the elasticity of their walls. With a decrease in the level of estrogen, the vessels become flabby, easily stretched and worse restore their shape, which we observe during menopause. [8]

But why do some pregnant women see vascular defects, while others do not? Again, the whole point is in the properties of the skin (in some people it is thin and delicate, so even small vessels are visible through it) and in hereditary predisposition. The restructuring of the body of the expectant mother acts as a trigger for a genetically determined process.

Spider veins in a child

As you know, a child's organism has many differences from an adult. A newborn baby was in the womb for a long time, and its living conditions did not require the organization of a serious system of protection and adaptation. The code of a newborn is not much like a protective shell. Thin, easily vulnerable and very sensitive to changes in the environment, it seems to glow through and through.

Very often, a bluish pattern of small veins in the eyelids, forehead and cheeks is visible in small children, whose skin is softer than that of adults. Such drawings are especially visible after walking in the fresh air on sunny, windy or frosty days.

The most pronounced tendency to the appearance of a vascular pattern is in premature, weakened and painful babies, who already at birth have a decent list of various pathologies of internal organs. But even in healthy children born on time, a vascular pattern can be seen translucent through the thin skin of the face.

Spider veins on the face of a newborn are common. Pediatricians treat him calmly, recommending only to protect the child's face from the sun and wind, so as not to complicate the situation. With age, the vessels become less visible.

If telangiectasias appeared already at a later age, attention should be paid to the previous events and behavior of the neoplasms. The appearance of single vascular networks can be the result of an accidental injury to the skin. If a "tree" appears on the child's cheeks or forehead, it may be caused by a temperature drop when leaving the bath or overheating of the child. The appearance of a picture after walking is quite common.

If the spider veins disappear quickly, there is nothing to worry about. But those that last for a long time are worth paying attention to. They can be both the result of a genetic predisposition (especially if the parents also had a similar reaction of the vascular system), which can manifest itself at different ages, or indicate some health problems. It is not necessary, referring to a small age, to exclude liver disease and circulatory disorders in a child. [9]

The same cirrhosis of the liver has a genetic predisposition, therefore it kills not only those who abuse alcohol (sometimes diagnosed in boys over 7 years old). Hepatitis affects people of all ages, but in the chronic course of the disease in children, it often turns into cirrhosis of the liver. In addition, in some cases (even if they are extremely rare), the appearance of a vascular network may indicate the development of malignant processes in the body.

What do spider veins look like in a child? These are usually not point formations. Treelike telangiectasias are more common, which are constantly visible from birth or appear later, becoming more expressive when the skin is exposed to heat or cold.

The appearance of multiple arachnid, point and linear vascular anomalies requires examination of the child, because there is a persistent violation of blood microcirculation, which negatively affects the functioning of the cardiovascular system as a whole. This state of affairs requires examination of the child and identifying the cause of the appearance of many telangiectasias. In some cases, it can be caused by hereditary reasons (congenital vascular weakness or features of the child's skin), but other pathologies related to the work of internal organs cannot be ruled out. [10]

You can distinguish pathological telangiectasia from genetically determined telangiectasia using a plate made of transparent material (plastic or glass). It is placed on the spider veins and slightly pressed down. If the neoplasm has changed its color to a lighter color (merged with the skin), most likely, we are talking about a hereditary characteristic of the organism. True, just in case it is better to play it safe and show the child to a specialist, because by making a diagnosis to our child, without having sufficient knowledge and skills, we thereby take responsibility for the consequences, whatever they may be.

Complications and consequences

Spider veins - neoplasms from small vessels, visible through the skin, thereby affecting its appearance. If we discard the aesthetic side of the issue, then regardless of the reasons causing the swelling of blood vessels and an increase in their visibility, such defects are not considered dangerous. It is not surprising that the fight against them is most often carried out in beauty parlors, and not in hospitals.

In some cases, you can see that the spider veins have disappeared on their own, in others - they have to be removed (again for the sake of a cosmetic effect). But it is very important to understand that in cases where telangiectasia is a symptom of the disease, removing the symptom does not solve the problem. This is not a method of treatment, which means that the disease will continue to progress, leaving more and more new marks on the skin. On the Internet, you can find many reviews where people complain that the  removal of spider veins  gave only a temporary result. Defects reappear in the same or a different place. [11]

Nevertheless, given how unaesthetic spider veins look, people are more and more inclined to believe that such defects need to be dealt with. There is no particular need to remove such defects, but if their presence becomes the cause of mental problems: the appearance of uncertainty, a decrease in self-esteem, depression, etc., such a struggle becomes a necessity.

Removing spider veins is a completely safe procedure, but there is still a risk of skin infection at the wound site. In addition, it is very important to choose the right time for the procedure. The bright summer sun is not the best option for recovering from it, especially if the removal of spider veins was carried out with a laser. Moreover, the sun exposure of the body after exposure to a laser significantly increases the risk of cancer.

After the procedure for removing telangiectasias, patients are often frightened when they see that the skin in the place where the spider veins was reddened or dark spots resembling bruises appeared on it. This is a normal phenomenon associated with the cauterizing effect of the laser and small hemorrhages under the skin at the site of damage to the walls of thin vessels. The redness usually disappears within a couple of days. In case of infection, severe swelling, soreness at the site of the former telangioeetasia, foci of suppuration may appear, the skin locally warms up. A general rise in temperature may indicate spread of infection. Hematomas disappear within 1–2 weeks.

Quite often, after fruitless attempts to get rid of the vascular mesh or at its large size, the owners of such a "decoration" try to disguise it. A tattoo is considered as one of the interesting and fashionable options for masking defects. But can spider veins be tattooed?

In principle, vascular defects under the skin are not included in the list of contraindications for tattoos, as are varicose veins. There is only a mention of skin diseases, but telangiectasias are not one of those, although they come to dermatologists with them, who can advise a phlebologist if you suspect varicose veins. [12]

Moreover, today the removal of spider veins with a laser is widespread, i.e. Moxibustion of telangiectasias, which in its essence is not much different from applying a classic tattoo. Unless it will be possible to argue a little about sanitary conditions, but even here you can always choose a professional who will not have any problems.

In addition, today a tattoo is a common decoration that is accessible even to children, because it can be done with a painless and completely safe method - using henna of different shades. Another thing is that any tattoo, again, does not solve the problem of spider veins in diseases. And the drawing on the face (if we are talking about  rosacea ) in our society is unlikely to be perceived positively.

Whatever a person undertakes in an attempt to get rid of an unaesthetic vascular defect, one must remember that health is first of all. Failure to comply with hygiene requirements implies a greater likelihood of wound infection, i.e. The development of a complication that requires certain treatment, which, moreover, can cause another skin defect (scars).

A very unpleasant consequence of ignoring the problem can be the progression of the existing disease. And this suggests that it is imperative to respond to the vascular signal and consult a doctor. If spider veins turn out to be the first sign of liver disease, varicose veins or hormonal disorders, this is a good chance to seize the disease at the very beginning, when it has not yet caused significant damage to health, and the chances of its early cure are high. [13]

Diagnostics of the spider veins

Spider veins and reticules, and scientifically telangiectasias, are considered by doctors as an external defect, which does not require special tests and devices to detect. In principle, a doctor is usually consulted in connection with the detection of a swollen vascular network or single small veins. But most often a person is worried about the aesthetic side of the problem, and not health issues, so he does not always look for help from doctors, inclining to remove a cosmetic defect in the conditions of cosmetology centers and clinics.

The extent to which this behavior is justified depends on the cause of the appearance of the vascular pattern. In some cases, the removal of neoplasms really gives a positive effect. And if the strange behavior of small vessels is not associated with the disease, there is nothing to worry about, this is a completely worthy solution to the problem. But if spider veins are a symptom of pathology, their removal does not lead to recovery. Moreover, it is simply impossible to get rid of defects completely in such conditions, in the future new drawings will appear, which once again speaks of the need for comprehensive treatment of the underlying disease and its manifestations.

But how to understand what caused the change in vascular behavior? Something can be said about how the spider veins look, where they are located, the prevalence of telangiectasias on the body, but only a specialist will determine the exact cause of their appearance. [14]

Since many patients treat vascular networks as a harmless cosmetic defect, they seek advice from a dermatologist at best. If we are not talking about steadily swollen veins in the legs and a feeling of heaviness in them, then this option is not bad. The dermatologist, after studying the patient's history and physical examination, can make his own verdict on a possible hereditary predisposition, but he may also advise a consultation with a phlebologist (vascular surgeon).

The best option is to first contact your therapist or pediatrician if the vascular pattern is found on the child's body, and especially when it does not disappear for a long time. And the therapist, having carefully examined the skin and familiarized himself with other symptoms, will already tell which doctor is best to contact.

With regard to analyzes, we can say that in this case they play a decisive role when it comes to research on hormones. After all, it is the hormonal imbalance that often leads to a violation of the elasticity of the capillary and venous network. A CBC, which can be prescribed by a physician, is helpful in checking for clotting and a predisposition to blood clots. It will also be necessary in preparation for the procedure for removing neoplasms.

If there is a suspicion of vascular pathologies, and in particular varicose veins, instrumental diagnostics comes to the rescue, which involves the study of venous vessels using ultrasound (dopplerography). Such an examination is necessary to assess the blood flow in the vessels. [15]

Sometimes these diagnostic methods are enough to make a diagnosis, in other cases the doctor may additionally prescribe an ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs, liver, kidneys, gynecological examination for women. In case of hormonal disorders not associated with pregnancy, menopause, the use of contraceptives, an endocrinologist's consultation is necessary.

Differential diagnosis

Differential diagnosis for spider veins is reduced to determining the causes of their appearance. That is, the doctor needs to differentiate non-pathological spider veins and telangiectasias, which are a symptom of a disease or hormonal disorders.

In childhood, babies sometimes have strange moles of bright red color on their bodies and heads, similar in appearance to vascular spiders. Both neoplasms are based on small vessels, but hemangiomas, as tumor formations, tend to increase in size, while spider veins are small in size and usually do not grow. As a benign tumor that is not prone to degeneration, hemangioma does not pose a particular danger, and is treated with the same methods as telangiectasia.

Who to contact?

Prevention

Since spider veins, according to doctors, are completely safe neoplasms that can be safely removed without health consequences, we can assume that the prognosis of their treatment is positive. But after all, telangiectasias, in their essence, are not a disease, but can only act as a symptom of certain disorders in the body. In this case, the capillary network tends to recover after the damaged vessel is removed, so that the procedure does not in any way affect the processes of tissue nutrition and respiration.

Small vessels, although they are an important component of the nutrition and gas exchange system in the body, do not play a decisive role in the circulatory system. There are a lot of them and the loss of a vessel in a short time is compensated by the formation of others. But when exposed to factors that provoke the disease, new vessels can also become less elastic and elastic, therefore, the removal of spider veins does not affect the prognosis of the underlying disease.

Regarding the prevention of vascular networks, the opinions of doctors, cosmetologists and alternative medicine differ somewhat. Some cosmetologists and alternative medicine recommend, for preventive purposes, to strengthen blood vessels in order to avoid their unjustified expansion, to increase elasticity and resistance to stress. Another part of experts argue that there is logic in strengthening the arteries and veins that have a strong frame, but it makes no sense to strengthen the permeable capillary membrane. And yet, both sides agree that it is useful and necessary to strengthen the vessels in case of venous damage (varicose veins). [16]

This can be done in a variety of ways. With the help of cold foot baths, a contrast shower (it causes alternating expansion and constriction of blood vessels, thereby training them), the inclusion in the diet of foods rich in vitamins C, P, B5 (do not forget to pay attention to trace elements: magnesium, manganese, zinc, calcium, etc.). Vitamin C is useful both as a stimulant of collagen synthesis and as a natural anticoagulant that prevents blood clots. Vitamin P reduces fragility of the smallest vessels - capillaries, and pantothenic acid strengthens blood vessels and prevents them from damage.

Exercise and an active lifestyle can be considered prevention of venous stasis. If a person has to sit a lot, it is necessary to take active breaks during work (as they say, to stretch the legs). When standing work, activity is also needed, but you need to give your legs and rest, squatting on a chair and lifting them slightly upward, improving venous outflow.

Since overweight people are more prone to the development of varicose veins and the appearance of spider veins on the legs and body, if it is present, there is a need to change eating habits and control body weight. Physical education and a low-calorie, but rich in vitamins and microelements diet with a minimum salt content in dishes will also help.

Massage of the legs and the whole body also helps to improve blood circulation and tissue nutrition, strengthens blood vessels, but people who already have spider veins are not recommended to actively massage such areas. If the vascular pattern appears under the influence of cold or heat, you should not wash your face with hot or too cold water (the best option is water at room temperature). Alcohol also promotes vasodilation, so do not abuse it either internally or externally (for example, in lotions).

Hormonal disorders do not have the best effect not only on blood vessels, so you should consult a doctor and correct your hormonal background, which will prevent the appearance of telangiectasias or help get rid of them. In the future, you need to carefully monitor the work of the endocrine and excretory systems, which will help to avoid many problems, including vascular networks. [17]

So, we learned what spider veins look like, and what diseases they can signal. It's time to carefully examine your face, body, limbs and make sure that there are no such defects on them, and along the way, do everything so that they do not appear. Otherwise, there is a reason to think about whether everything in your body is functioning correctly or it's time to visit your doctor again and take care of your health.


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