Types of sarcoma
Types of sarcoma depend on the location of the disease. Depending on the type of tumor, certain diagnostic and therapeutic techniques are used. Let's look at the main types of sarcoma:
- Sarcoma of the head, neck, bones.
- Retroperitoneal neoplasm.
- Sarcoma of the uterus and mammary glands.
- Gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
- The defeat of soft tissues of extremities and trunk.
- Desmoid fibromatosis.
Sarcomas arising from hard bone:
- Ewing's sarcoma.
- The Sarcoma the Steam.
Sarcomas arising from muscle, fat and soft tissue:
- Kaposi's Sarcoma.
- Fibrosarcoma and skin sarcoma.
- Soft tissue and fibrous histiocytoma.
- Synovial sarcoma and dermatofibrosarcoma.
- Neurogenic sarcoma, neurofibrosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma.
- Sarcoma of internal organs.
The group of sarcomas consists of more than 70 different variants of the disease. Sarkom, distinguish and malignancy:
- G1 - low degree.
- G2 is the middle degree.
- G3 - high and extremely high degree.
Let's take a closer look at some types of sarcomas that require special attention:
- Alveolar sarcoma - most often occurs in children and adolescents. Rarely produces metastases, and is a rare type of tumor.
- Angiosarcoma - affects the vessels of the skin and develops from the blood vessels. Occurs in internal organs, often after irradiation.
- Dermatofibrosarcoma is a kind of histiocytoma. It is a malignant tumor that originates from the connective tissue. Most often affects the body, it grows very slowly.
- Extracellular chondrosarcoma is a rare tumor that arises from cartilaginous tissue, localizes in cartilage and grows into bones.
- Hemangiopericytoma - a malignant tumor from the blood vessels. It has the appearance of nodes and most often affects patients under 20 years old.
- Mesenchymoma is a malignant tumor that grows from vascular and adipose tissue. Affects the cavity of the stomach.
- Fibrous histiocytoma is a malignant tumor localized on the limbs and closer to the trunk.
- Schwannoma is a malignant tumor that affects the nerves. Develops independently, rarely gives metastases, affects deep tissues.
- Neurofibrosarcoma - develops from Schwannian tumors around the processes of neurons.
- Leiomyosarcoma - appears from the rudiments of a smooth muscular tissue. Rapidly spreads through the body and is an aggressive tumor.
- Liposarcoma - arises from adipose tissue, localized on the trunk and lower limbs.
- Lymphangiosarcoma - affects the lymphatic vessels, most often occurs in women who have undergone a mastectomy.
- Rhabdomyosarcoma - arises from the striated muscle, develops in both adults and children.
There is a category of sarcoma without additional characteristics. This category includes:
- Kaposi's sarcoma - usually occurs due to the herpes virus. It is often found in patients taking immunosuppressants and HIV-infected. The tumor develops from the dura mater, hollow and parenchymatous internal organs.
- Fibrosarcoma - occurs on ligaments and muscle tendons. It often strikes feet, less often - the head. The tumor is accompanied by ulcers and actively metastasizes.
- Epithelioid sarcoma - affects the peripheral parts of the limbs, in young patients. The disease actively metastasizes.
- Synovial sarcoma - occurs in articular cartilage and near the joints. It can develop from the synovial membranes of the muscles of the vagina, and spread to the bone tissue. Because of this type of sarcoma, the patient has reduced motor activity. Most often occurs in patients from 15-50 years.
Stromal sarcoma is a malignant tumor that affects internal organs. As a rule, stromal sarcoma affects the uterus, but this disease is a rare phenomenon that occurs in 3-5% of women. The only difference between sarcoma and uterine cancer is the course of the disease, the process of metastasis and treatment. The suggestive sign of the appearance of sarcoma is the passage of a course of radiation therapy for the treatment of pathologies in the pelvic region.
Stromal sarcoma is predominantly diagnosed in patients aged 40-50 years, with menopause, sarcoma occurring in 30% of women. The main symptoms of the disease are manifested in the form of bloody discharge from the genital tract. Sarcoma causes painful sensations due to the increase in the uterus and squeezing its neighboring organs. In rare cases, the stromal sarcoma is asymptomatic, and it can be recognized only after a visit to the gynecologist.
Spindle cell sarcoma
The spindle cell sarcoma consists of spindle-shaped cells. In some cases, histological examination, this type of sarcoma is confused with fibroids. The tumor nodes have a dense consistency, a fibrous structure of white-gray color is visible on the cut. The sarcoma of sarcoma appears on the mucous membranes, skin, serous cover and fascia.
Tumor cells grow randomly alone or in bundles. They are located in various directions relative to each other, intertwining and forming a tangle. The size and location of the sarcoma is varied. With timely diagnosis and rapid treatment has a positive prognosis.
Malignant sarcoma is a tumor of soft tissues, that is, pathological formation. There are several clinical signs that combine malignant sarcomas:
- Localization is deep in the muscles and subcutaneous tissues.
- Frequent relapse of the disease and metastasis to the lymph nodes.
- Asymptomatic tumor growth for several months.
- The location of the sarcoma in the pseudocapsule and frequent germination beyond its limits.
Malignant sarcoma recurs in 40% of cases. Metastases appear in 30% of patients and most often affect the liver, lungs and brain. Let's look at the main types of malignant sarcoma:
- Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is a tumor of soft tissues, localized in the trunk and extremities. When carrying out an ultrasound, the tumor does not have clear contours, it can lie on the bone or cover the vessels and tendons of the muscles.
- Fibrosarcoma is a malignant formation of connective fibrous tissue. As a rule, it is localized in the area of the shoulder and hip, in the thickness of soft tissues. A sarcoma develops from the intermuscular fascial formations. Metastasizes into the lungs and occurs most often in women.
- Liposarcoma is a malignant sarcoma of adipose tissue with a variety of varieties. It occurs in patients of all ages, but most often in men. It affects limbs, hip tissues, buttocks, retroperitoneal space, uterus, stomach, seminal cord, mammary glands. Liposarcoma can be single and multiple, while developing on several parts of the body. The tumor grows slowly, but can reach very large sizes. The peculiarity of this malignant sarcoma is that it does not germinate in the bones and skin, but it can recur. The tumor gives metastases to the spleen, liver, brain, lungs and heart.
- Angiosarcoma is a malignant sarcoma of vascular origin. It occurs both in men and in women, between the ages of 40-50. It is localized on the lower limbs. The tumor contains blood cysts that become the focus of necrosis and hemorrhage. Sarcoma grows very quickly and is prone to ulceration, can metastasize to regional lymph nodes.
- Rhabdomyosarcoma is a malignant sarcoma, develops from the striated musculature and ranks 3rd among malignant soft tissue lesions. As a rule, it affects the limbs, develops in the thickness of the muscles in the form of a knot. At palpation soft with a dense consistence. In some cases, it causes hemorrhage and necrosis. Sarcoma is quite painful, metastasizes into the lymph nodes and lungs.
- Synovial sarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor that occurs in patients of all ages. As a rule, it is localized on the lower and upper extremities, in the region of the knee joints, feet, hips, shins. The tumor has the shape of a knot of round shape, limited from surrounding tissues. Inside the formation there are cysts of different sizes. Sarcoma recurs and can start metastases even after the course of treatment.
- Malignant neurinoma - malignant formation, occurs in men and patients suffering from Recklinghausen disease. The tumor is localized on the lower and upper limbs, head and neck. Metastasizes rarely, can give metastases to the lungs and lymph nodes.
Pleomorphic sarcoma is a malignant tumor that affects the lower limbs, trunk and other places. In the early stages of development, the tumor is difficult to diagnose, so it is detected by reaching 10 centimeters or more in diameter. Education is a lobed, dense knot, a reddish-gray color. The site contains a zone of hemorrhages and necrosis.
Pleomorphic fibrosarcoma recurs in 25% of patients, gives metastases to the lungs in 30% of patients. Because of the progression of the disease, the tumor often causes death, within a year of the discovery of education. Survival of patients after detection of this formation is 10%.
Polymorphocellular sarcoma is a fairly rare autonomous type of primary skin sarcoma. The tumor develops, as a rule, on the periphery of soft tissues, and not in depth, surrounded by the erythematous corolla. During the period of growth, it ulcerates and becomes similar to a gummy syphilide. Metastasizes into the lymph nodes, causes an increase in the spleen, and when squeezing the soft tissue causes a strong pain.
According to the results of histology, it has an alveolar structure, even with reticular carcinoma. The connective tissue network contains rounded and fusiform cells of the embryonic type, similar to megakaryocytes and myelocytes. At the same time, the blood vessels are devoid of elastic tissue and thinned. Treatment of polymorphous cell sarcoma is only operative.
Undifferentiated sarcoma is a tumor that is difficult or impossible to classify according to the results of histology. This kind of sarcoma is not associated with certain cells, but, as a rule, it is treated as rhabdomyosarcoma. So, malignant tumors of indeterminate differentiation are:
- Epithelioid and alveolar soft tissue sarcoma.
- A light-celled soft tissue tumor.
- Intimal sarcoma and mesenchymoma of malignant type.
- Circular cell desmoplastic sarcoma.
- Tumor with perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation (myomelanocyte sarcoma).
- The extrarenal rhabdoid neoplasm.
- Ewing vnekeleletnaya tumor and extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma.
- Neuroectodermal neoplasm.
Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm, of an aggressive nature. The tumor consists of polymorphic cells, in some cases has giant cells with a polymorphic nucleus and a pale cytoplasm. Cells of histiocytic sarcoma are positive when tested for nonspecific esterase. The prognosis of the disease is unfavorable, since generalization occurs quickly.
Histiocytic sarcoma is characterized by a rather aggressive course and a poor response to therapeutic treatment. This type of sarcoma causes extranodal lesions. This pathology undergoes the gastrointestinal tract, soft tissues and skin. In some cases, the histiocytic sarcoma affects the spleen, central nervous system, liver, bone and bone marrow. During the diagnosis of the disease, immunohistological examination is used.
Round cell sarcoma
Circular cell sarcoma is a rare malignant tumor consisting of round cellular elements. The cells contain hyperchromic nuclei. Sarcoma corresponds not to the mature state of connective tissue. The tumor is rapidly progressing, so it is extremely malignant. There are two types of circulatory cell sarcoma: small-cell and large-cell (the species depends on the size of the cells that make up its composition).
According to the results of the histological examination, the neoplasm consists of round cells with poorly developed protoplasm and a large nucleus. Cells are located close to each other, do not have a certain order. There are contiguous cells and cells separated from each other by thin filaments and pale-colored amorphous mass. Blood vessels are located with connective tissue layers and tumor cells that are adjacent to its walls. The tumor affects the skin and soft tissues. Sometimes, with the lumen of the vessels, it is possible to see the tumor cells that have implanted into healthy tissues. The tumor metastasizes, recurs and causes necrosis of affected tissues.
Fibromixoid sarcoma is a neoplasm with a low degree of malignancy. The disease affects both adults and children. Most often, the sarcoma is localized in the area of the trunk, shoulders and hips. The tumor rarely metastasizes and grows very slowly. The reasons for the emergence of fibromyxoid sarcoma include hereditary predisposition, trauma to soft tissues, the effect on the body of large doses of ionizing radiation and chemicals that have a carcinogenic effect. The main symptomatology of fibromyxoid sarcoma:
- There are painful seals and tumors in the soft tissues of the trunk and extremities.
- In the field of neoplasm appear painful sensations, and sensitivity is disturbed.
- The integuments acquire a bluish-brown color, and with increasing neoplasm, compression of the vessels and ischemia of the extremities occurs.
- If the neoplasm is localized in the abdominal cavity, the patient has pathological symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract (dyspeptic disorders, constipation).
The general symptoms of fibromyxoid sarcoma are manifested in the form of unmotivated weakness, weight loss and lack of appetite, which lead to anorexia, as well as frequent fatigue.
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Lymphoid sarcoma is a tumor of the immune system. The clinical picture of the disease is polymorphic. Thus, in some patients lymphoid sarcoma manifests itself in the form of lymph node enlargement. Sometimes the symptoms of the tumor manifest themselves in the form of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, eczematous rashes on the skin and poisoning. Sarcoma begins with a syndrome of squeezing lymphatic and venous vessels, which leads to a disruption of the functions of the organs. In rare cases, the sarcoma causes necrotic lesions.
Lymphoid sarcoma has several forms: localized and local, common and generalized. From the morphological point of view, lymphoid sarcoma is divided into: large cell and small cell, that is, lymphoblastic and lymphocytic. The tumor affects the lymph nodes of the neck, retroperitoneal, mesenteric, less often - axillary and inguinal. Neoplasm can also occur in organs that contain lymphoreticular tissue (kidneys, stomach, tonsils, intestines).
To date, there is no single classification of lymphoid sarcomas. In practice, the international clinical classification, which was adopted for lymphogranulomatosis:
- Local stage - affected lymph nodes in one area, have extranodal localized lesion.
- Regional stage - the lymph nodes in two or more zones of the body are affected.
- The generalized stage - the lesion appeared on either side of the diaphragm or spleen, the extrasodal organ is touched.
- Disseminated stage - sarcoma progresses on two or more ectranodal organs and lymph nodes.
Lymphoid sarcoma has four stages of development, each of which causes a new more painful symptomatology and requires prolonged chemotherapy for treatment.
Epithelioid sarcoma is a malignant tumor that affects the distal parts of the limbs. The disease is most often found in patients of a young age. Clinical manifestations suggest that epithelioid sarcoma is a type of synovial sarcoma. That is, the origin of the neoplasm is a controversial issue among many oncologists.
The disease got its name because of rounded cells, large epithelioid forms that resemble a granulomatous inflammatory process or squamous cell carcinoma. New growth manifests itself in the form of a subcutaneous or intradermal nodule or multi-site mass. The tumor appears on the surface of the palms, forearms, hands, fingers, feet. Epithelioid sarcoma is the most common soft tissue tumor of the upper limbs.
The sarcoma is treated by the method of surgical excision. This treatment is explained by the fact that the neoplasm spreads along the fascia, blood vessels, nerves and tendons. Sarcoma can give metastases - nodules and plaques along the forearm, metastases in the lungs and lymph nodes.
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Myeloid sarcoma is a local neoplasm consisting of leukemic myeloblasts. In some cases, before myeloid sarcoma, patients experience acute myeloblastic leukemia. Sarcoma can act as a chronic manifestation of myeloid leukemia and other myeloproliferative lesions. The tumor is localized in the bones of the skull, internal organs, lymph nodes, tissues of the mammary glands, ovaries, gastrointestinal tract, tubular and spongy bones.
Treatment of myeloid sarcoma consists of chemotherapy and local radiation therapy. The tumor lends itself to antileukemic treatment. The tumor rapidly progresses and grows, which determines its malignancy. Sarcoma metastasizes and causes disturbances in the work of vital organs. If the sarcoma develops in the blood vessels, then the patients have irregularities in the hemopoietic system and anemia develops.
Clear cell sarcoma
Clear cell sarcoma is a malignant fasciogenic tumor. Neoplasm, as a rule, is localized on the head, neck, trunk and affects soft tissues. The tumor is a dense knots of round shape, in diameter from 3 to 6 centimeters. When histologically examined, it was determined that the tumor nodes are gray-white in color and anatomical connection. The sarcoma develops slowly and is characterized by long-term long-term course.
Sometimes, a clear cell sarcoma appears around or inside the tendons. The tumor often recurs and gives metastases to the bones, lungs and regional lymph nodes. Sarcoma is difficult to diagnose, it is very important to differentiate it from the primary melanoma of a malignant species. Treatment can be carried out by surgical methods and methods of radiotherapy.
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Neurogenic sarcoma is a malignant neoplasm of neuroectodermal origin. The tumor develops from the Schwannian membrane of peripheral nerve elements. The disease is extremely rare, in patients aged 30-50 years, usually on the limbs. According to the results of the histological examination, the tumor is round, large-hummocky and encapsulated. Sarcoma consists of spindle-shaped cells, the nuclei are located in the form of a stockade, cells in the form of spirals, nests and bundles.
The sarcoma develops slowly, with palpation causes painful sensations, but is well limited by surrounding tissues. Sarcoma is located along the nerve trunks. Treatment of a tumor is only surgical. In particularly severe cases, excision or amputation is possible. The methods of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, in the treatment of neurogenic sarcoma, are ineffective. The disease often recurs, but has a positive prognosis, the survival rate among patients is 80%.
Bark sarcoma is a rare malignant tumor of various localizations. Most often, the disease appears in the area of the knee and shoulder joints and in the pelvic region. The cause of the disease can be trauma. Exostoses, fibrous dysplasia and Paget's disease are another cause of bone sarcoma. Treatment involves methods of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Sarcoma muscle is very rare and most often affects younger patients. In the early stages of development, the sarcoma does not manifest itself and does not cause painful symptoms. But the tumor gradually expands, causing swelling and painful sensations. In 30% of cases of muscle sarcomas, patients experience abdominal pain, associating it with problems with the gastrointestinal tract or menstrual pain. But soon, the pain begins to be accompanied by bleeding. If the muscle sarcoma has arisen on the limbs and begins to increase in size, then it is easiest to diagnose it.
Treatment completely depends on the stage of development of the sarcoma, size, metastasis and degree of spread. For treatment, surgical methods and radiation are used. The surgeon removes the sarcoma and part of the healthy tissue around it. Irradiation is used both before the operation and after, to reduce the tumor and destroy the remaining cancer cells.
Sarcoma of the skin, is a malignant lesion, the source of which is connective tissue. As a rule, the disease occurs in patients aged 30-50 years. Localized tumor on the trunk and lower limbs. The causes of the appearance of sarcoma are chronic dermatitis, trauma, prolonged lupus, scars on the skin.
The sarcoma of the skin is most often manifested in the form of solitary neoplasms. The tumor can appear both on the intact dermis, and on zarubtsovanoy skin. The disease begins with a small solid nodule, which gradually increases, acquiring the wrong outlines. The new growth grows towards the epidermis, germinating through it, causing ulceration and inflammation.
This type of sarcoma metastasizes much less frequently than other malignant tumors. But with the defeat of lymph nodes, the patient's death occurs 1-2 years later. Treatment of skin sarcoma involves the use of chemotherapy, but surgical treatment is considered more effective.
Sarcoma of the lymph nodes
Sarcoma of lymph nodes is a malignant neoplasm that is characterized by destructive growth and arises from lymphoreticular cells. Sarcoma has two forms: local or localized, generalized or common. From a morphological point of view, sarcoma of lymph nodes is: lymphoblastic and lymphocytic. Sarcoma affects the lymph nodes of the mediastinum, neck and peritoneum.
The symptomatology of sarcoma is that the disease is growing rapidly and increasing in size. The tumor is easily palpable, the tumor nodes are mobile. But because of abnormal growth, they can acquire limited mobility. Symptomatic of sarcomas of lymph nodes depends on the degree of lesion, stage of development, localization and general condition of the body. Diagnosis of the disease using ultrasound and X-ray therapy. In the treatment of sarcoma of lymph nodes, methods of chemotherapy, radiation exposure and surgical treatment are used.
Sarcoma of vessels
Sarcoma of vessels has several varieties, which differ in nature of origin. Let's look at the main types of sarcomas and malignant tumors that affect the vessels.
It is a malignant tumor that consists of a cluster of blood vessels and sarcomatous cells. The tumor quickly progresses, is capable of disintegration and profuse bleeding. Neoplasm is a dense, painful knot of dark red color. At the initial stages, angiosarcoma can be taken for hemangioma. Most often this kind of vascular sarcoma occurs in children older than five years.
Sarcoma originating from the inner walls of the blood vessel. Malignant neoplasm has several layers of cells that can close the lumen of blood vessels, which complicates the diagnostic process. But the final diagnosis is made by histological examination.
Hemangiopericytoma originating from the external vascular membrane. The peculiarity of this type of sarcoma is that sarcomatous cells grow around the vascular lumen. A tumor can consist of one or more nodes of different sizes. The skin over the tumor becomes blue.
Treatment of vascular sarcoma involves surgical intervention. After the operation, the patient is given a course of chemotherapy and radiation to prevent recurrence of the disease. The prognosis for sarcomas of vessels depends on the type of sarcoma, its stage and the way of treatment.