Voice impairment in children is not an independent disease, but occurs due to the action of certain causes and factors. Some of them are harmless, others require careful diagnosis and treatment.
The main causes of hoarseness in a child:
- Overstrain of the vocal cords - the mucous membrane of the larynx is very sensitive, so children's crying, loud screaming or singing cause microtraumas with ruptures of small capillaries and swelling. Because of this, wheezing and hoarseness occur.
- SARS, influenza - one of the complications of colds is inflammation of the larynx. Laryngitis is of viral and bacterial origin. In addition to disturbing the sound, body temperature rises, a runny nose, cough, and sore throat appear. 
- Intoxication - inhalation of chlorine vapors and other chemicals causes spasms and swelling of the larynx, coughing. If the body is affected by ammonia, then there are pains behind the sternum, sputum discharge. Fluorine provokes convulsions, a strong cough, redness of the eyes.
- Allergic reactions - contact with an allergen, an insect bite, inhalation of irritating odors causes an allergy with swelling of the soft tissues. In especially severe cases, Quincke's edema develops, which is manifested by stenosis of the larynx, shortness of breath and suffocation. The stages of an allergic reaction change very quickly, so you should immediately seek emergency medical help. 
- Foreign objects entering the larynx - this condition requires emergency diagnosis and treatment. Since the foreign body interferes with the passage of air into the lungs. Against this background, a paroxysmal cough develops, the face becomes pale or with a bluish tint. The child suffocates and loses consciousness. If the airways are not released in time, then this is dangerously fatal. 
- Burns - chemical and thermal damage to the mucous ligaments and the respiratory tube causes severe swelling, tissue damage and subsequent scarring. This is dangerous not only by changing the sound, but also by the loss of the ability to talk. 
- Injuries of the larynx - hoarseness develops when struck in the anterior or lateral region of the neck. 
- Metabolic disorders - a change in the production of certain hormones is displayed on the sound. Due to fluid retention in the tissues, swelling of the ligaments occurs. Treatment is hormone replacement therapy.
- Dehydration of the body - if you do not drink liquid for a long time, this causes dryness of the mucous membranes and the appearance of wheezing. 
- Stress, strong fear and excitement cause changes in the sound. After some time, the voice apparatus is restored without outside help.
- Paresis and paralysis - a violation occurs when the nerve endings of the vocal apparatus are damaged. The child feels numbness of the larynx and difficulty breathing.
- Tumor neoplasms - if they are located in the larynx, they can compress blood vessels and nerve endings. Against this background, there is a periodic cough, sore throat, wheezing in the voice.
- Dysphonia is a qualitative violation of the voice (change in pitch, timbre, duration, strength). It develops due to overstrain of the vocal cords, respiratory diseases, congenital pathologies, psychological and behavioral factors. It is manifested by gradual fatigue of the voice and a feeling of tightness / sore throat. It can cause problems in expressing thoughts and cause anxiety due to the child's limited communication. 
These are far from all the possible causes of hoarseness, so you should not ignore an unpleasant symptom, as it may indicate serious pathological processes in the body.
Hoarseness of voice during teething
The appearance of teeth from the gums is a painful process. In some children, the first teeth begin to be cut at 3-6 months, and in others at a year. The process of teething is individual, but almost all babies experience the following symptoms:
- Redness and swelling of the gums.
- Increased body temperature.
- Increased salivation.
- Itchy gums.
- Bad appetite.
- Digestive disorders.
- Sleep disturbance.
- Hoarseness of voice.
The appearance of the first teeth does not affect the state of the immune system. But the formation of a large amount of saliva leads to the fact that it loses its protective properties. This negatively affects the state of immunity and can accelerate the development of infectious diseases. Also, against the background of a change in sound, pain in the nose and ears, redness of the cheeks, and a runny nose may occur.
To alleviate unpleasant symptoms, various painkillers, drugs to reduce body temperature are used. There is a special teething gel. In this case, it is contraindicated to massage the gums with alcohol-containing preparations or rub the tablets into the inflamed mucosa. As the child's condition improves, his voice, appetite, and sleep are restored.
The child has a hoarse voice after a cold
The most common cause of a hoarse voice in a child is a cold. This concept includes more than 200 respiratory viruses that are transmitted by airborne droplets. The disease state is manifested by the following symptoms:
- Increased body temperature.
- Runny nose.
- Increased lachrymation and pain in the eyes.
- Voice change.
Often a cold is complicated by damage to the vocal apparatus. Because of this, the patient's voice becomes hoarse, hoarse. But as you recover, the sound is restored.
There are several simple methods that will help you quickly restore a hoarse voice after a cold:
- Silence - ligaments need rest and warmth. Wrap the baby's throat with a scarf, the child should talk in a whisper or play silent with him.
- Plentiful drink. The best way to restore the sound is warm milk with honey, warm tea, herbal decoctions. Such drinks can be consumed throughout the day and always before bedtime.
- Rinsing - for these purposes, you can use pharmaceutical preparations or decoctions / infusions of medicinal herbs. Chamomile flowers have antiseptic properties, while eucalyptus leaves are antimicrobial. Take 1 tbsp. Dry raw materials, mix thoroughly and pour 300 ml of water. Boil the broth over low heat for 1-2 minutes. After cooling, strain and let the child gargle. Procedures are carried out every 2 hours until the violations are completely eliminated.
4. Inhalations - herbal remedies are suitable for these purposes. You can prepare a decoction based on chamomile, eucalyptus, calendula, coltsfoot. Dilute a tablespoon of herbs in a liter of boiling water, cover your head with a towel and breathe.
If the main symptoms of a cold have disappeared, and hoarseness persists for a long period of time, then the child should be shown to the pediatrician.
Osip voice with stomatitis in a child
Stomatitis is an inflammation of the oral mucosa. Most often it appears on the inner surface of the cheeks, lips and palate, under the tongue.
Stomatitis develops due to the conditionally pathogenic flora of the oral mucosa. Under the action of certain factors, the immune defense of the body is reduced, and viruses / bacteria are activated. Also, possible causes of the disease include:
- Violation of the integrity of the oral mucosa.
- Unbalanced nutrition.
- Violation of hygiene - eating unwashed vegetables, fruits, licking dirty fingers, improper dental care.
- Taking drugs that reduce salivation.
- Chronic diseases.
- Gastrointestinal disorders.
- Endocrine pathologies.
Depending on the nature of the damaging effect, several types of stomatitis are distinguished: bacterial, fungal, viral, radiation, chemical. But regardless of the cause, stomatitis is manifested by an acute intoxication syndrome, which includes:
- Redness and swelling of the mucosa.
- The formation of rounded sores (the wound is covered with a white film, and redness around it).
- Pain and burning on contact with the affected mucosa.
Against the background of the disease, the body temperature rises, the submandibular lymph nodes increase. If a child has a hoarse voice with stomatitis, then this indicates the spread of the pathological process to the mucous membrane of the larynx.
For treatment, rinsing with disinfectants, taking antimicrobials, avoiding aggressive foods (hard, sour, spicy, hot, cold), proper oral hygiene are prescribed. Therapy takes 5-10 days. The voice is restored as it recovers.
After a sore throat, the child's voice is hoarse
One of the most common otolaryngological diseases in children is acute tonsillitis. Angina is an infectious and inflammatory process with lesions of the palatine tonsils. Its main etiological agent is beta-hemolytic streptococcus, pneumococci and staphylococci are less common. There is also monocytic angina caused by cytomegalovirus and agranulocytic, which develops with pathologies of the hematopoietic system.
The main symptoms of the disease:
- High body temperature.
- General weakness and malaise.
- Pain in the throat, aggravated by swallowing.
- Enlarged submandibular and cervical lymph nodes.
Such a symptom as a change in voice (hoarseness, wheezing) deserves special attention. It develops due to inflammation and swelling of the larynx, tonsils.
For the diagnosis of tonsillitis, the patient is examined and a complex of laboratory tests is carried out (smear microscopy, bacteriological culture of the tonsils discharged from the surface, a smear for hemolytic streptococcus, PCR). Treatment consists of strict bed rest, sparing nutrition, and plenty of fluids. Patients are prescribed rinses with antiseptic and painkillers.
For the speedy restoration of the voice, it is necessary to provide peace to the vocal cords, drink plenty of warm liquids, and refuse food that irritates the mucous membranes. To enhance blood circulation and speed up the healing process, dry heat will help (a warm scarf on the throat or mustard baths in the absence of temperature). At night, the child can be given a glass of warm milk, dissolving a piece of butter and honey in it.
If voice problems and other painful symptoms persist for a long period of time, then this may indicate the development of complications of angina (rheumatism, glomerulonephritis, arthritis, paratonsillar abscess, etc.), which require serious medical attention.