Hoarseness of voice in a child as a symptom of the disease

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 10.08.2022

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Hoarseness and wheezing are related to sound disturbances, which in turn are divided into organic and functional.

  1. Symptoms of organic voice disorders are caused by damage to the neuromuscular apparatus and non-closure of the vocal cords. The patient complains of severe fatigue, and in some cases, the impossibility of performing a vocal load. Against this background, unpleasant subjective sensations appear in the throat:
  • Tickle.
  • Rawness.
  • Pain and pressure.
  • Lump sensation.
  • Scratch.
  • Disturbed breathing.

In young children, organic disorders are accompanied by a pronounced lag in speech development, a violation of sound pronunciation, difficulties with social contacts, a delay in the accumulation of vocabulary and grammatical structures.

  1. Symptoms of functional voice disorders - are manifested by the inability to regulate the sound of the voice, hoarseness and fatigue. If dysphonia is caused by functional disorders of a central nature (psychogenic aphonia, hysterical mutism), then it is manifested by a sharp loss of voice, the inability to speak in a whisper. At the same time, coughing and sonorous laughter persist.

Cough and hoarseness in a child

There are several causes of coughing in children, but if coughing attacks are accompanied by a violation of the sound, then most likely it is laryngitis. Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx develops due to hypothermia or overheating of the body, various infections, overstrain of the muscles of the larynx. [1]

Laryngitis is considered a childhood disease. In children, the lumen of the larynx is small, so even a slight inflammation provokes its swelling and narrowing. The disease state is distinguished by the form and intensity of the course:

The main forms of laryngitis:

  • Catarrhal.
  • Stenosing.
  • Hypertrophic.
  • Atrophic.
  • Hemorrhagic.
  • Diphtheria.
  • Phlegmozone.

The intensity of the disease is divided into acute and chronic. In the first case, the symptoms develop very abruptly. The chronic process is characterized by a slow development with a gradual increase in pathological symptoms.

In addition to coughing and hoarseness, the child has the following symptoms:

  • Red and swollen throat.
  • Increased body temperature.
  • Spasms of the muscles of the larynx.
  • Feeling of dryness and itching in the mouth.

One of the dangers of laryngitis is croup. This respiratory pathology develops due to a strong narrowing of the lumen of the larynx. The child complains of difficulty breathing, cyanosis may occur on the body, indicating insufficient blood oxygen saturation. Most often, croup develops at night, when the mucus that accumulates in the windpipe drains and dries up, causing serious breathing problems.

A pediatrician and an otolaryngologist are engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of a painful condition. To confirm the diagnosis, an anamnesis is taken and the patient's complaints are analyzed, a general examination of the child and an assessment of the state of the lymph nodes. It is also necessary to visually examine the larynx with an endoscope, take smears from the mucous membrane of the throat, blood and urine tests. Based on the results of the examinations, a treatment plan is drawn up. Therapy includes taking medications, physiotherapy procedures and a strict regime for keeping the child.

Dry cough and hoarseness in a child

One of the most common reasons for visiting a pediatrician is a children's cough. Excruciating bouts of dry cough in combination with impaired sound and deterioration in general well-being exhaust the child, interfere with sleep day and night.

The presence of a dry cough (sputum does not separate) and wheezing, hoarseness in the child's voice most often indicate an acute respiratory viral infection. Unpleasant symptoms occur at the initial stage of the disease and in the first days of a cold. Viruses penetrate the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract, causing swelling and irritation of tissues.

Dry cough and dysphonia are typical for such colds:

  • ARI, SARS.
  • Bronchitis.
  • Tracheitis.
  • Laryngitis.
  • Pharyngitis.

If a dry cough is very strong or dull, then this may indicate infectious diseases (measles, whooping cough), allergic reactions due to inhalation of allergens or small foreign particles, laryngotracheobronchitis, or the development of false croup. [2], [3]

In addition to coughing and changes in the voice, the child complains of a sensation of tickling, soreness, something constantly irritates and interferes. The pediatrician deals with the diagnosis and treatment of an unpleasant condition. The doctor selects drugs that reduce coughing attacks, promote sputum discharge and restore voice.

Hoarseness of voice without cough in a child

Similar symptoms are observed with overstrain of the vocal cords. The mucous membrane of the children's larynx is very sensitive, so crying, screaming or even singing cause microtrauma with ruptures of small capillaries and swelling. Against this background, hoarseness develops in the voice without coughing.

  • Dysphonia can be observed in the first days of colds. But as the infectious process spreads, additional symptoms appear (cough, fever, general weakness and malaise).
  • Another possible cause of the disorder is intoxication and allergic reactions. Inhalation of the allergen leads to a sharp swelling of the respiratory tube, impaired voice and breathing. In this case, without timely medical attention, there is a risk of suffocation.
  • Dysphonia is observed with chemical and thermal damage to the mucous membrane of the ligaments and larynx, trauma, endocrine pathologies, tumor neoplasms, with severe stress and fright, damage to nerve endings.

The treatment for a lost voice depends on the causes and factors that triggered the disorder. Any therapy provides for a minimum load on the vocal cords, humidification of the air in the room and plenty of warm drink.

Hoarseness of voice and temperature in a child

During the passage of air through the gap of the larynx with closed ligaments, waves are formed, which are the voice. The thicker and longer the cords, the lower the sound. If the ligaments are even, then the sound tone is clear. With thickening and unevenness of the ligaments, the voice becomes hoarse. There are obstacles in the path of sound waves that create interference and cause dysphonia.

If, in addition to disturbing the sound, the child has a fever, then this may be due to problems such as:

  • Inflammatory diseases of an infectious nature.
  • Overheating of the body.
  • Teething.
  • Reaction to vaccination (vaccinations).
  • Allergic reactions.
  • Kidney disorders.

In most cases, when pathological factors are eliminated, hoarseness resolves on its own. But if the temperature and dysphonia persist for a long period of time and are supplemented by other pathological symptoms (lethargy, runny nose, vomiting, loose stools), then you should immediately seek medical help.

Hoarseness of voice in a child without fever

Due to the peculiarities of the structure of the upper respiratory tract (supplied with a huge number of blood vessels), children very often experience dysphonia. Hoarseness of voice can occur with various pathological symptoms, which depend on the underlying cause of the disorder.

If the sound disturbance occurs without elevated body temperature, then this may indicate such factors:

  • Irritation of the larynx.
  • Overexertion of the vocal cords.
  • Respiratory injuries.
  • Ingestion of foreign objects into the larynx.
  • Allergic reactions.
  • Voice mutations in puberty.
  • Strong fear, excitement, stress.
  • Intoxication of the body and more.

If dysphonia persists for a long period of time, then you should seek medical help and conduct a comprehensive examination of the body. Since in some cases voice disturbance is one of the symptoms of serious pathological processes in the body.

If the voice has sat down due to a loud scream or crying, that is, an overstrain of the vocal cords, then no special treatment is required. It is enough to provide calmness to the throat and the vocal cords will recover within a few days. You should also exclude foods that irritate the mucous membranes of the vocal apparatus from the diet, provide the child with plenty of fluids to soften the throat, and maintain moderate humidity in the room.

Sore throat hoarseness in a child

The off-season, with its temperature fluctuations and cold winds, is the period of colds and the main cause of sore throats and dysphonia in children.

Let us consider in more detail the main causes of sound disturbance in children with sore throats:

  1. Bacterial infections - they cause a painful condition in half of the cases. For diagnosis, a swab is taken from the throat, a sowing is done on the bacterial flora and its resistance to antibacterial drugs. If the inflammation is localized in the pharyngeal tonsils, then this indicates tonsillitis. In this case, in addition to a sore throat, the child's body temperature rises and general well-being worsens.
  2. Viral infections - a painful condition may be due to an acute respiratory viral infection. For example, with adenovirus, pharyngitis is observed, an increase in cervical lymph nodes. This is typical for a bacterial infection. Voice disturbance and sore throat develop gradually. The child is lethargic, complains of pain in the head and body aches.
  3. Irritation of the pharyngeal mucosa - these can be allergic reactions or chemical / thermal burns of the mucosa. The child complains not only of pain, but also of perspiration, itching in the throat. There may be increased tearing, nasal discharge, sneezing, and in some cases a dry cough.
  4. Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx - laryngitis occurs with sore throat and rawness, barking cough, respiratory failure. If the disease is caused by a viral infection, then the baby complains of increased fatigue and deterioration in general well-being.

Methods for treating sore throat and restoring sound depend on the cause that provoked them. For viruses, bacteria and infections, antibacterial and antimicrobial agents of local and systemic action are used. The doctor may prescribe painkillers for the throat, various physiotherapy procedures and a sparing diet.

Hoarseness of voice in a child with laryngitis

Laryngitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx. This disease leads to a change or complete loss of sound. Most often it is faced by children. A painful condition occurs due to excessive stress on the vocal cords, infection, or exposure to chemical irritants on the mucous membrane.

Signs of laryngitis in a child:

  • barking cough
  • Pain, itching, or sensation of a lump in the throat.
  • Hoarseness or complete loss of voice.
  • Runny nose.
  • Increased body temperature (if the disease is caused by a virus).

When the first signs of laryngitis appear, the child should be provided with a home regimen and plenty of warm drink. Dry heat on the neck area and voice rest will contribute to the restoration of the voice. The conversation increases the swelling of the mucous membrane of the vocal cords. You should also ensure that the air in the room is clean and humidified.

Depending on the cause of the disease, the doctor prescribes medications. Drug therapy includes mucolytics to convert dry cough into productive, inhalation, rinsing, various physiotherapy. Particular attention is paid to preventive measures that are aimed at strengthening the body's immune defenses.

Barking cough and hoarseness in a child

One of the varieties of dry cough is barking. It is also called unproductive, because it only coughs up air, not sputum, that is, the airways are not cleared. A rough cough sound is caused by inflammatory swelling of the mucous membrane of the posterior wall of the larynx, vocal cords, and pharynx.

A barking cough and hoarseness in a child may indicate the development of a cold or inflammatory diseases (laryngitis, pharyngitis, stenosing laryngotracheitis), infectious processes (cough, scarlet fever, whooping cough, diphtheria) or allergic reactions.

Often, against the background of a barking cough, the child has additional symptoms:

  • General weakness and fatigue.
  • Labored breathing.
  • Sore throat.
  • Headaches.
  • Sleep disorders.

Cough attacks are quite painful, causing irritation and soreness in the throat, hoarseness and even loss of voice. Due to the strong swelling of the respiratory system, wheezing, shortness of breath, blanching of the skin and face occur during inspiration.

Treatment of a painful condition depends on the cause that provoked it. Children are prescribed peripheral drugs that soften, reduce swelling, inflammation and irritation of the mucosa (lozenges, lozenges, plant-based syrups). Centrally acting drugs are also prescribed, they block the cough reflex at the level of the cough center of the brain. Patients can be prescribed non-drug methods of treatment: herbal medicine and various physiotherapy.

Hoarseness of voice and runny nose in a child

The nasal cavity is the upper respiratory tract through which air is exchanged. The air is warmed, moistened and purified, and the ciliated epithelium traps pathogenic microorganisms.

Young children are susceptible to the development of rhinitis, as their nasal passages are narrower and more tortuous, and the inner shell is supplied with a large number of blood vessels. The development of a runny nose contributes to the active formation of the child's immune system. It should also be borne in mind that in some cases, snot and a change in sound are signs of an allergic reaction.

Cold stages:

  1. Breathing is difficult, there is no discharge from the nose.
  2. Stuffy nose, clear discharge.
  3. Bacterial inflammation of the mucosa, discharge of a thick consistency and a yellow-green hue.

Another possible cause of difficulty in nasal breathing and voice changes is foreign objects in the nasal passages. But most often a runny nose in combination with a hoarse voice in a child is the first symptoms of a respiratory viral infection. The baby becomes whiny, his health worsens, an increase in body temperature and the development of additional symptoms are possible:

  • Cough (dry, wet).
  • Muscle and joint pain.
  • Violation of taste and smell.
  • Increased lacrimation.
  • Redness of the sclera.
  • Irritation of tissues near the nose.

If you let an unpleasant symptom take its course, then this can cause nasopharyngitis, tonsillitis and other serious complications.

Treatment methods depend on the causes and symptoms of the disorder. The child may be prescribed vasoconstrictor nasal drops, therapeutic inhalations, washing the nasal passages with a sea water raster or herbal decoctions. Physiotherapy has effective properties: UHF, diathermy, UV irradiation, inhalation through a nebulizer and others.

Severe hoarseness in a child

One of the most common causes of severe voice impairment in a child is infectious inflammation of the respiratory tract. In this case, the appearance of severe hoarseness indicates damage to the mucous membrane of the larynx and vocal cords. The children's larynx contains a large number of blood vessels, therefore, during the inflammatory process, the blood supply to the vessels increases, causing swelling and a change in sound.

Also, severe hoarseness can be triggered by such reasons:

  • Laryngeal injuries.
  • Foreign body in the larynx.
  • Excessive voice load.
  • Severe allergic reactions.
  • Neoplasms of the larynx (cysts, polyps, tumors of the vocal folds, fibromas).
  • Laryngitis (acute, nodular, chronic).
  • Cancer of the larynx.

If the disease state is provoked by an infection, then in addition to dysphonia, other pathological symptoms also occur. First of all, it is a sore throat, cough, runny nose, deterioration in general well-being.

If severe hoarseness is caused by a foreign body that has entered the larynx, then the child has a paroxysmal cough, which leads to the closure of the lumen of the larynx and asphyxia. The baby's skin turns blue, and he stops breathing. In this case, without emergency medical care, there is a risk of death.

Dysphonia in combination with a severe febrile state is a sign of intoxication of the body. If a runny nose, lacrimation, skin rashes, itching suddenly appear, then this is an allergic reaction.

Methods of treatment and restoration of sound depend on the cause of the disease state. If a foreign body enters the larynx, emergency measures are taken to remove it. For allergic reactions, antihistamines are taken. Antimicrobial and antibacterial agents are indicated for viral infections. Timely treatment helps to avoid the development of complications.

Hoarseness of voice in an infant

Voice disorders in infants are not uncommon. Most often, hoarseness occurs in the second month of life. Its appearance is associated with an overstrain of the vocal cords and their adaptation to new living conditions.

Causes and factors of dysphonia in infants:

  • Prolonged crying, crying.
  • Changes in the body.
  • inflammatory processes.

In some cases, a change in sound occurs for no apparent reason. If the child does not show anxiety and no other painful symptoms occur, then the disorder will pass on its own.

In children older than a year, an unpleasant symptom is most often associated with overstrain and overwork of the voice, congenital anomalies of the larynx, tumor neoplasms, psychoneurotic disorders, inflammatory, viral or infectious processes in the body. The pediatrician is engaged in identifying the cause of the disorder and drawing up a treatment plan.

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