Gastritis bread: black, rye, wholegrain, bran

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 16.10.2021

All iLive content is medically reviewed or fact checked to ensure as much factual accuracy as possible.

We have strict sourcing guidelines and only link to reputable media sites, academic research institutions and, whenever possible, medically peer reviewed studies. Note that the numbers in parentheses ([1], [2], etc.) are clickable links to these studies.

If you feel that any of our content is inaccurate, out-of-date, or otherwise questionable, please select it and press Ctrl + Enter.

In acute or chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa - gastritis - it is necessary to streamline the diet and follow a certain diet. And patients often ask the question whether it is possible to eat bread with gastritis and, if so, which one.

Is it possible to eat bread during gastritis?

First let's clarify what the benefits of bread, which since ancient times is the most important human food. Only in the EU the production of this product (according to data for 2016) - 32 million tons per year. The average bread consumption per capita in the EU is about 55 kg. However, consumption varies in different countries. For example, the Germans consume 80 kg of bread per year, the French - 59 kg per year, and the British - less than 50 kg per year. [1]Food products from wheat grains give about 20-50% of the total number of calories for the population of our planet.[2]

In moderate quantities, bread is beneficial because it provides the body with nutrients such as carbohydrates (in the form of starch) and vegetable proteins in the form of albumin, globulins, gluten (gluten), wheat flour [3], and sekalin, a form of gluten of rye flour, which contain amino acids, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, magnesium, iron (in the form of phytic acid salts), selenium and vitamins (beta-carotene, thiamine, tocopherol, folic acid, riboflavin, niacin). There are also reserve proteins - prolamins, which include a high level of amino acids glutamine and proline.

The content of vegetable proteins in bread varies in the range of 5-20% (depending on the type of wheat from which flour is produced), but they are only 75-80% digested. At the same time, the individual digestibility of the essential amino acids lysine and histidine contained in wheat gluten can be higher - up to 86-95%.[4]

According to experts in the field of healthy nutrition, half of the daily calorie intake should be covered by carbohydrates (it is the human muscles that “work” on them), and one of the healthy sources of carbohydrates are, for example, two or three standard pieces of black bread: these are 45-60 g of carbohydrates, giving 65-90 kcal. In addition, black bread contains fiber (fiber), which contributes to normal intestinal motility and its emptying, as well as lower LDL (bad cholesterol) and stable blood sugar levels.[5]

However, the presence of gastritis means that it is necessary to limit the consumption of many products, and in many cases, contraindications also apply to bread - to prevent possible complications in the form of exacerbation of painful symptoms. Do not forget about  gluten allergy.[6]

It should also be borne in mind that, unlike bread, which our ancestors ate, modern bread is full of additives and preservatives... [7]

What kind of bread do you have for gastritis?

So, what kind of bread can be eaten during gastritis. According  to the gastritis diet, you can use dried (stale) bread or dry slices of bread purposefully. Sweet pastry is contraindicated.

The same principle is used for bread with gastritis with high acidity (read -  Diet for gastritis with high acidity ), as well as bread for erosive gastritis (see -  Diet for erosive gastritis ).

Thus, it is allowed to use dried white bread for gastritis, both hyperacid and hypoacid. Gastroenterologists also recommend dried, yeast-free bread during gastritis on the background of hypochlorhydria, since the low level of acidity in the stomach leads to insufficient digestion of starch of yeast bread, which "gets stuck" in the intestine, creating conditions for excessive growth of yeast fungi and bacteria.

The question arises, why not fresh bread during gastritis. First, drying bread, especially at a temperature of + 65-80 ° C (in a toaster or oven), reduces the enzyme activity of amylases contained in the flour.

Secondly, when bread is consumed, the process of its digestion begins in the mouth, where, under the action of saliva (having alkaline Ph), starch turns into dextrin first, and then maltose. [8]But when chewing fresh bread, salivation does not cause saliva, which leads to its longer digestion in the stomach. But dry bread and crackers made from it stimulate salivation, that is, in the stomach, they will be digested faster and easier.

In the cavity of the stomach, the splitting of starch by saliva continues for some time, and then gastric juice is released, under the action of which (thanks to pepsin and hydrochloric acid), further digestion of bread takes place - approximately within 2-2.5 hours.

What kind of bread can be eaten during exacerbation of gastritis? Bread is on the list of products that, in cases of acute illness, a  diet for chronic gastritis  (Pevzner’s diet No. 5a) prohibits consuming.

Bread for gastritis: black, rye, Borodino, with bran

It is not recommended to use black bread with gastritis with high acidity: this bread increases the production of acid in the stomach, and also contains phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers, which further irritate the gastric mucosa. [9]

Among the categorical contraindications is rye bread with gastritis on the background of increased acidity of gastric juice, since the acidity of this type of bread is increased, and it is digested much harder than white bread. [10]

Similarly, Borodino bread should not be eaten during gastritis - due to the excess acid content in the rye sourdough used in baking it.

Gastroenterologists do not recommend eating wholegrain and bran bread with gastritis: these varieties of bread have a stronger peptogenic effect, and phytic acid of wheat fiber reduces the absorption of calcium, iron and zinc. [11], [12]

And finally, bread and butter for gastritis can be, but only separately, because they are digested differently, and fats slow down the digestion of carbohydrates and protein proteins. And it is important for patients with gastritis to eat slowly digested food as little as possible so as not to overload the diseased stomach.

Translation Disclaimer: The original language of this article is Russian. For the convenience of users of the iLive portal who do not speak Russian, this article has been translated into the current language, but has not yet been verified by a native speaker who has the necessary qualifications for this. In this regard, we warn you that the translation of this article may be incorrect, may contain lexical, syntactic and grammatical errors.

You are reporting a typo in the following text:
Simply click the "Send typo report" button to complete the report. You can also include a comment.