All iLive content is medically reviewed or fact checked to ensure as much factual accuracy as possible.
We have strict sourcing guidelines and only link to reputable media sites, academic research institutions and, whenever possible, medically peer reviewed studies. Note that the numbers in parentheses (, , etc.) are clickable links to these studies.
If you feel that any of our content is inaccurate, out-of-date, or otherwise questionable, please select it and press Ctrl + Enter.
HPV type 31: what to do, how to treat?
Medical expert of the article
HPV type 31 is a virus with a high oncogenicity index. Its location in the deep layers of the skin, namely in the basal cells of the membrane. HPV may be causal on the genitals and in the inguinal zone of growths, as well as increase the risk of precancer or cancer.
Structure HPV type 31
For type 31 HPV, an exceptional DNA structure and an intrinsic genotype are characteristic. Most often, HPV is found on the internal and external genitalia, as well as on mucous membranes and skin. The danger is that in men and women, the virus activates only when immunity decreases, and before that it can be asymptomatic for a long period of time in the human body.
This happens like this:
The DNA of the virus penetrates into the normal cell and lives there for several years, and when the immunity decreases, it begins to manifest itself, forming a large number of infected cells.
Life cycle HPV type 31
A small period of time, the virus can exist in the external environment, but its main life cycle passes inside the cells of the body.
How is HPV 31 transmitted?
The path of transmission of the virus from person to person, most often occurs during sexual intercourse. There is evidence that even a condom does not protect one hundred percent of the infection (so the virus has small particles). In addition, the risk group includes infants who can become infected by the mother during labor (a manifestation of them - papilloma in the larynx). As well as infection can occur in everyday life, for example, through the touch of a healthy person to the patient through small skin defects.
Summing up all this, we can identify several risk factors for HPV infection of type 31:
- unprotected intercourse with the carrier of the virus;
- Gastrointestinal diseases;
- decreased immunity;
- visiting swimming pools, saunas;
- alcohol abuse;
- non-observance of the rules of personal hygiene.
If we take into account the fact that the virus does not express itself in the main, then any symptoms of the virus carrier should be urgently addressed to the doctor.
Such symptoms can be:
- papilloma and condyloma on the genitals of the fairer sex;
- papules and plaques of a specific type in the stronger sex;
Due to the fact that the body of a woman is more vulnerable to adverse factors, they are more likely to have a virus strain of 31 strains. In addition, the pathological process begins to express itself earlier. If you do not go to the doctor and do not undergo therapy, the external signs of pathology (in the form of papillomas, condylomas, plaques and papules) will increase the area of the lesion and can degenerate into malignant tumors.
HPV 31 in women
Since the representatives of the weaker sex are more prone to genital cancer than the strong sex, for them the appearance of any symptomatology that indicates the presence of the virus in the body is very serious. Penetrating into the body, it will exist there for a very long time, until the pathological process begins.
At the weaker sex, the appearance of such signs of pathology is possible:
- bleeding after copulation;
- groundless pain in the lower abdomen;
- highlighting a peculiar kind.
Particular attention should be paid to pain after sexual intercourse, this symptom must always be announced to the treating gynecologist.
HPV 31 in pregnancy
If a woman has been found to have HPV 31 strains before she gets pregnant, she needs to visit a gynecologist and undergo a cytological examination. The doctor can resolve the pregnancy only if the test results are normal. It is necessary to undergo compulsory treatment before pregnancy, if the study reveals that the pathological changes have occurred in the cervix of the uterus. In both cases, mandatory monitoring of indicators is required. HPV therapy in the case of pregnancy is carried out only if negative changes in the cervix of the uterus are detected during the examination.
To increase the resistance of the future mother's organism to infections, immunomodulatory medications must be prescribed.
The main danger at the gestational time intervals will be infection of the baby during labor (if the virus has infected the genitals). But there is as yet no exact data on the source of intrauterine infection of the newborn. Equally, as well as information that the infection happened actually through the birth canal, and not the placenta or in the postpartum period.
There is a chance that with a natural labor, the baby can take a small amount of infected fluid, and therefore there is a possibility of laryngeal papillomatosis. The consequences are very serious, since this can cause a disability or suffocation of a newborn. Therapy of the child is surgical. But this does not exclude the possibility of repeated exacerbations, although with age it decreases.
HPV 31 in men
The mechanism of infection in men is the same as in women - the virus enters the body during unprotected intercourse through microtraumas of the penis.
The beginning of activation of the pathological process is evidenced by the persistent different time intervals, cell dysplasia.
Externally, neoplasms will be observed on the bridle of the penis, rarely on his body, head or near the urethra.
In the latter case, pain will not pass unnoticed during urination.
Complications and consequences
HPV of high oncogenic risk 31. What is dangerous for HPV 31?
Like the sixteenth with the eighteenth types of HPV, it is one of the most dangerous strains. It can cause such diseases as:
- neoplasia (second or third degree);
- Cervical dysplasia;
- Uterine cancer;
- Carcinoma of the penis;
- Anal sex carcinoma;
- Bowen's dermatosis;
- Bovenoid papulosis;
- Papillomatosis of the larynx;
- Cancer of the oral cavity;
- Dental complications.
To diagnose the pathological process, the following procedures will be required:
- To pass or take place inspection at the gynecologist (for women) and the urologist (for men) at the first signs of a pathology in the form: warts, papillomas and condylomas;
- Passage twice a year of cytological examination for detection of cancer cells (for women up to 26 years);
- PRC for the presence of a virus
- Digest test for the type of virus and the degree of oncogenic risk.
PCR VPČ 31
Analysis of the PRC for the presence of HPV is the surest method of diagnosis. The DNA of the virus is determined by a chain reaction.
Using this analysis, you can determine the presence, type and amount of the virus in the body.
Special training is not needed. You just need not urinate half an hour or two before taking the scraping from the urethra.
PRC allows you to see the picture of the origin of papillomavirus and its spread in the body. Thanks to this analysis, the doctor, depending on the type and inclination of the papilloma to degeneration into a malignant tumor, will prescribe treatment.
However, it is worth bearing in mind that the result of the study may be false-positive or false-negative if the conditions of its conduct were violated.
Analysis of HPV 31
The strain strain will be divided into three main categories. The unit of measurement of the Lg agent equivalents per hundred thousand human epithelial cells.
- Lg <3 is an unimportant concentration of the virus;
- Lg 3-5 - a small risk of dysplasia;
- Lg> 5 - a high probability of dysplasia.
The result may depend on many factors:
- Accurate compliance of the patient with all the doctor's recommendation for preparation for analysis;
- Correct scraping for analysis;
- The exact type of HPV DNA.
Decoding of the analysis can be done only by a qualified medical professional, because only he can take into account not only the research data, but also clinical manifestations, as well as the patient's history.
The norm of HPV in this case is a negative result. If the patient has a positive result, this is an occasion to undergo an additional examination and the necessary therapy.
HPV 31 positive
If the patient has a positive result as a result of the examination, this means that:
- The patient belongs to a high risk group for cancer development;
- The patient needs additional research;
- If there are no clinical manifestations, it is necessary to observe the development of the virus.
What if HPV 31 was found?
If studies have shown the existence of HPV in the body, you should immediately go to the doctor, only he will be able to assign and conduct additional studies. Lesions on the genitals will be detected at an early stage, before the beginning of the degeneration into malignant neoplasm the therapy will be most effective, with a minimum of undesirable effects. If there are no signs of pathology, the organism under the supervision of a doctor, most likely, will manage itself.
Therapeutic treatment includes several items:
- Personal hygiene - every member of the family must have his own towel;
- Drug therapy, including concomitant diseases of the digestive system of a chronic nature (for example, gastritis);
- Mechanical contraception (condom);
- Local treatment ;
- Treatment with alternative means, to strengthen the immune system, soothing effect and increase the level of blood vitamins;
- Antiviral treatment, for suppressing the virus.
If all this turns out to be ineffective, and the risk of neoplasm degeneration into cancer will increase, using modern methods (laser treatment or cryodestruction), surgical treatment is performed.
Prevention HPV type 31
To reduce the risk of infection, you must follow several rules:
- Personal hygiene;
- Protected sexual intercourse;
- Availability of a spare pair of shoes when going to the beach or sauna;
- Timely therapy of pathological processes of the digestive system;
- Support your body in tone;
- Skin protection even with small damages.
- Carrying out vaccination.
If a patient has been diagnosed with HPV 31, this does not necessarily mean the development of cancer. In case the immune system is healthy, the body under the supervision of a doctor, consult yourself. Since immunity works worse in the presence of chronic pathological processes, it is important to tell them about the doctor, and in this case to take additional funds to maintain immunity. The most important thing is to follow all the doctor's recommendations and remember that the pathology can return at any moment.