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Herpetic stomatitis

 
, medical expert
Last reviewed: 17.10.2021
 
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Herpetic stomatitis is one of the subspecies of herpes mucosal lesions. During the appearance of herpetic stomatitis, a lot of sores appear in the mouth of the patient, characteristic of herpes, which give very unpleasant sensations, especially when eating.

Rarely now you will meet a person who has never met with such a disease as herpes. This is a viral infection, which is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of small vesicles, which are grouped, creating entire islets of damage. Most often, rashes appear on the skin, on the eye mucosa in the form of conjunctivitis or keratitis, as well as in the genital area. In the most complex forms, herpes can affect the central nervous system, causing meningitis or encephalitis.

To the aggravation of herpes is either overheating of the body, or hypothermia, which negate the resistance of the body.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]

Causes of herpetic stomatitis

Recently, doctors have come to the conclusion that viral infection of herpes is the primary source of herpetic stomatitis. The herpes virus, which once got into the human body, does not disappear from it anywhere and can not appear for a long time and does not affect the work of internal organs.

Herpetic stomatitis is the most common form of stomatitis. It is observed in its majority in children up to 3 years, as well as in young people. For the first time herpes can get into the human body against the background of a general weakening of the body and a decrease in immunity. Herpes virus is transmitted to a healthy person by direct contact with a sick person or by airborne droplets. The incubation period of the virus in the body of an infected person is from 2 to 21 days. The mild forms of the virus are tolerable enough for pain, the symptoms disappear for 2-4 days. Herpetic stomatitis in children is easier and less painful, with significant salivation, the appearance of bad breath and possible nausea or vomiting due to intoxication.

In adults, this disease is exacerbated, it proceeds more painfully, since in the mouth of an adult person various processes occur over time - caries are formed, the gingival pockets are enlarged and enlarged, the mucous membrane is injured due to the action of very hot, cold, spicy food, and smoking and so on .

trusted-source[7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14]

Symptoms of herpetic stomatitis

During the exacerbation of the herpes virus in the body, which leads to the appearance of herpetic stomatitis, characteristic malfunctions appear on the mucous membrane of the mouth, which are located on the swollen, inflamed, hyperemic skin. In addition, the patient's condition also worsens and, in general, the temperature rises, frequent or persistent headache occurs, the appetite decreases, there is a constant drowsiness, lymph nodes under the jaw protrude and begin to ache. As mentioned earlier, ulcers with herpetic stomatitis resemble islands of small vesicles. The bubbles are filled with a light turbid liquid. The appearance of ulcers is typical for 2-3 days of the disease.

Children often suffer from the mild form of this disease. As soon as herpetic stomatitis develops in children, she begins to react very violently to the pain - often crying, do not want to eat, children grow up complaining of burning sensation in the mouth, dizziness, nausea or vomiting.

Herpetic stomatitis in children on days 2-4 gradually begins to go on recession, the vesicles burst, the fluid from them flows out, the skin falls on the mucosa and then grows, the ulcers become epithelialized and the child's well-being improves.

Herpetic stomatitis in adults is more painful and difficult, because it is aggravated by the consequences of previous diseases, as well as structural changes in tissues in the mouth. This disease most often appears in people who have suffered acute herpetic stomatitis at an early age, and at some point in adult life they have started their own organism, have been given immunity to weaken or have suffered some serious disease - cancer, blood disease, severe hypothermia and so on .

Aphthotic herpetic stomatitis

Aphthotic herpetic stomatitis - it is also an acute herpetic stomatitis - is a serious disease provoked by the same herpes virus. It differs in that it breaks the work of the immunological, nervous system, macrophages.

Aphthotic herpetic stomatitis can be combined with herpetic eruptions both on the skin and on the genitals. The virus multiplies in epithelium and practically does not remove from the body. Contains DNA. Most often, the virus enters the human body in the 1-3 years of age during the time from the child's body derived antibodies derived from the mother, and the protective functions of the body are somewhat reduced, and the virus remains with the child for life. Virtually 90% of adults in the body have the herpes virus.

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Chronic herpetic stomatitis

Periodically manifested in people infected with a viral infection of herpes. Isolation and increase in the number of viral cells occurs every day. In small quantities, the virus enters the skin cells, into the mucosa, where they are neutralized by the mechanisms of the immune system.

For chronic herpetic stomatitis, the appearance of vesicles is characteristic both on the skin and inside it, which bursts quite quickly, causing slight erosion. In recurrent herpetic stomatitis there is a large number of dead tissue in the area of ulcers, lymph nodes remain the same size, there is no increased salivation or bad breath, there is no bleeding.

During the relapse of the disease, general weakness, lack of appetite, irritability, joint pain are observed, the overall temperature reaches 37.5-38.5 degrees. Depending on the complexity of the form of the disease, there are 3 stages of chronic herpetic stomatitis:

  • easy - the disease "visits" you 1-2 times a year, the number of ulcers is small;
  • medium-severe - the patient suffers from stomatitis 2-4 times a year, has a general symptomatology;
  • severe - the disease returns more than 4 times a year or is repeated continuously, at the site of passing ulcers, new symptoms can appear immediately, the symptoms are strong enough.

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Diagnosis of herpetic stomatitis

To establish that your disease is precisely herpetic stomatitis, the doctor will help you. In order to confirm this diagnosis, a number of procedures will be required. First of all, it is necessary to find out whether this disease was observed before, in what will help the patient's medical record.

Then the doctor should examine the oral cavity and establish the nature of the wounds formed on the mucosa or skin. In addition to visual information, the doctor must also know about the course of the disease before contacting a medical facility. By examining the patient and examining the affected parts of his body, the doctor determines the type of virus or infection, the nature of the course, and the severity and stage of the disease. If this is not possible to establish the nature of the disease, the doctor conducts a number of laboratory studies - virological, cytological, immunological, molecular-biological, serological, and so on. The doctor needs to establish the cause of the appearance and the organisms that influenced the appearance and development of a similar disease in your body.

After these procedures, treatment is prescribed. During treatment, the doctor also observes the patient, the development of the disease, and changes in the surface of the affected areas.

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Treatment of herpetic stomatitis

Treatment of herpetic stomatitis in children and adults in some ways is different.

Treatment of herpetic stomatitis in children in a recurring period should begin before the appearance of the first "bells" announcing the return of the disease. As soon as the child begins to feel a slight burning or itching, swelling in the mouth, you need to start treatment of local, and better systemic.

To treat herpetic stomatitis, children are prescribed acyclovir, sometimes in high amounts. However, parents should be ready to replace drugs - acyclovir sometimes will need to be replaced by cidofovir or foscarnet. Such substitutions are explained by the fact that herpes ceases to respond to the same drug, which is used for every relapse.

During the retreat of the disease, it is also necessary to prevent the herpetic stomatitis, and also be constantly monitored by the treating dentist. It is necessary to constantly improve the child's health, adhere to diet and sleep, prevent or eradicate bad habits. If necessary, clean the permanent sites of inflammation or the appearance of ulcers from necrotic tissues.

It should be ensured that the child does not injure the mucous membranes of the mouth, does not crack solid objects, does not bite his lips and cheeks. In the spring-summer period, it is desirable to apply a photo-protective lipstick to the child on the lips.

If such procedures do not help, and the form of herpetic stomatitis turns to severe, contact the immunologist, since your child should get immunocorrection.

Treatment of herpetic stomatitis in adults can begin spontaneously and it will still help to speed recovery, reduce soreness, and eliminate complications.

With general therapy, the patient is prescribed a number of drugs, which he must take 5-7 days. Bonafton, which is taken 0.1 g to 5 times a day for a period of 5 days, has antiviral properties. Sodium salicylate, which is taken on 0.5 grams four times a day, cleans the body of unwanted elements that enter the body during the course of herpetic stomatitis, and also helps strengthen the protective functions of the body. Attributed as antihistamines - dimedrol, diazolin, suprastin and others. If the patient is on inpatient treatment, it can also be prescribed intramuscularly for 25-50 micrograms 2-3 times with an interval after each injection of 3-4 days.

There are also a number of other drugs that are prescribed in the treatment of herpetic stomatitis in adults:

  • leukinferon - inhalations and injections, course - 7-10 days;
  • acyclovir / zoviraks - tablets, 4 pieces per day, course - 5 days;
  • imudon - tablets, 6-8 pieces per day, the course - 14-21 days;
  • interferon solution, 5-6 drops per day, course - 7 days.

With regard to local therapy, both children and adults need to apply to the affected areas of the ointment, use antiseptic drugs, and preferably several times a day rinse the affected areas with special solutions.

Ointment for the treatment of herpetic stomatitis on the basis of interferon:

  • 1 ampoule of interferon;
  • 5 g of anhydrous lanolin;
  • 1 g of peach oil;
  • 0.5 g anesthesin.

You can also use 0.5% bonaflone, 2% tebrofenovuyu, 1-2% florenal ointment or 3% linimet gossypol and other drugs.

To rinse the mouth, potassium permanganate solutions are used in the ratio 1: 5000, 0.25-0.5% hydrogen peroxide, 0.25% chloramine, a solution of furacelin in the ratio 1: 5000, 0.1% chlorhexidine and others.

To anesthetize the affected areas, 5-10% anesthetic solution with peach oil, 1-2% solution of pyromecaine, 1% trimekaine solution, 10% lidocaine aerosol are prescribed.

Prevention of herpetic stomatitis

In order to avoid the appearance of herpetic stomatitis it is necessary to carry out a number of preventive actions.

You should always listen to your body, do not allow hypothermia, or on the contrary, overheating, which disarm your body and allow harmful organisms to develop and bring you discomfort. Prevention of herpetic stomatitis should include medical treatment in case of sudden hypothermia, severe stress, when treating autoimmune diseases, and so on.

Also, especially for the treatment of herpetic stomatitis in children, 7-10 sessions of helium-neon laser radiation can be prescribed.

In addition, you need to monitor your diet, get rid of bad habits, especially those that contribute to traumatizing the mouth and lips. It is desirable to temper and heal.

Herpetic stomatitis is a common and widespread phenomenon, however, some people struggle with it and make attempts to get rid of it completely or at least reduce the incidence, while others start the disease, and then suffer with it all their life. Remember that your body is your work because you are the creator of your health. A healthy life - it's almost a happy life.

Be healthy and always take care of your body!

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