Fungus of the genus Candida can live inside the vagina of even a healthy woman: this situation is typical for 5% of cases.
Fungus can enter the vagina from the intestine, if hygiene is not respected or if casual sexual contact occurs.
The presence of fungus does not always cause the appearance of the disease. Kandidamikoz vagina appears only when there is a decrease in the protective forces of the body. Often this can be observed with hormonal changes, in disorders of metabolic processes, with frequent cystitis and adnexitis.
A long-term intake of hormones (contraceptives), violation of intestinal microflora, antibiotic therapy promote the appearance of vaginal candidiasis.
Candidomycosis is more likely to affect pregnant women: it is associated with a sharp hormonal restructuring in their body.
When candidiasis of the vagina, the patient usually complains of secretions and itching in the genitals. Discharges are more often liquid, contain different amounts of curdled elements. In neglected cases, the separated can be dense, pasty, with a greenish tinge. Perhaps the presence of an unpleasant odor, more often sourish.
Itching does not have specific characteristics: it can disturb both periodically and continuously, but it can intensify after prolonged physical exertion or during menstruation.
Often candidiasis of the vagina occurs simultaneously with the development of cystitis. In such cases, burning and discomfort is observed during urination.
When examining the mucous membrane of the vagina, you can pay attention to a light gray coating on the walls: the mucous membrane is swollen, hyperemic (in chronic course it can have a normal appearance).
Candidamycosis of the vagina can proceed for a long time, even for several years, followed by periods of remission and exacerbation.
Candidamycosis of the oral mucosa
One of the manifestations of fungal diseases can be candidamycosis of the oral mucosa, which appears in childhood and adulthood with prolonged dyspepsia and immune defenses.
Most often the disease affects newborn babies, but the fungus can be transmitted to older children if the hygiene rules are not respected. Fungus can be transmitted through infected nipples, linen and care products. Infection of the oral mucosa in a newly born baby can occur from a mother who has a vaginal candidiasis. Older children may get sick after prolonged therapy with antibiotics, cytostatics or hormones.
The defeat of the oral mucosa often begins imperceptibly. Only after some time the baby can become capricious, his appetite disappears and sleep is disturbed. The older children and adults have a burning sensation in the mouth, many note the appearance of a strange aftertaste in the mouth. Nearby lymph nodes can be enlarged. Sometimes there is hyperthermia. If you examine the oral cavity, you can see a whitish coating on the inner surface of the cheeks, tongue or palate. In the absence of treatment, the amount of plaque grows, a film is formed that is similar in appearance to cottage cheese, or to coagulated milk. If desired, the film can be easily removed with a spatula, however, in neglected cases, when the plaque acquires a gray-yellow tint and becomes denser, it becomes difficult to do this. With the forcible shift of dense plaque reddened mucosa may be exposed, in some cases containing ulcers and bleeding elements of damaged tissue.
Often candidiasis of the oral mucosa is combined with other forms of candidiasis, when the lesion spreads to the genitals, as well as to other organs and systems. The most common candidiasis of the corners of the mouth: this fungal infection affects the lips and corners of the mouth (seizures).
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The concept of "visceral candidiasis" is used when characterizing the degree of infection with a fungal infection. The term "visceral" means "referring to internal organs". That is, simply put, visceral can be called any candidiasis of internal organs: lungs, bronchi, heart, digestive system.
Visceral candidiasis does not have any characteristic symptoms. The disease can often be determined only after carrying out laboratory tests.
Candidamycosis of the stomach can be accompanied by a lack of appetite, dyspeptic phenomena (attacks of nausea, vomiting (sometimes with curdled elements) .There is an upset stomach, flatulence.
Kandidamikoz respiratory system is characterized by the appearance of a cough (usually a cough without sputum, dry and paroxysmal), the phenomena of bronchospasm. In advanced cases, there are purulent discharge from the bronchi.
Let us dwell in more detail on the most common manifestations of visceral candidiasis: lesions of the esophagus and intestine.
Candidiasis of the esophagus
Candidamycosis of the esophagus is also called "esophageal" candidiasis - this disease is a consequence of a disorder of physiology and immunology in the body. As we have already said, one of the reasons for the development of pathology is the weakness of the immune defense, taking place along with antibiotic therapy, the intake of corticosteroid hormones, anti-acid therapy, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, toxic substances, malnutrition, senile age. The underlying factor may be a violation of the motor function of the esophagus, obstruction, parenteral nutrition, etc.
Clinical symptoms of the disease may be different. At the beginning of the disease, the affected esophagus tissue looks like light or cream areas that slightly rise above the mucosa. With the course of the process, the sections can join, forming dense films. In this case, the pathogen penetrates into the submucosa, then spreads into the muscle tissue and vascular wall. Plaque can expand to such an extent that over time it effectively blocks the lumen of the esophageal canal. Fungi, cultivated on the cells of the epithelium of the esophagus, also restrains all kinds of bacteria and inflammatory elements on the surface. In severe cases, it is possible to develop an inflammatory process in the esophagus followed by necrosis of its walls.
Signs of pathology in the early stages of the disease are mostly absent. However, with the development of the process, patients note difficulties with swallowing food, as well as soreness in swallowing. In this regard, patients refuse food, lose their appetite and, accordingly, body weight.
Some patients do not experience difficulty in swallowing, but note the appearance of pain behind the sternum, heartburn, attacks of vomiting with elements of film structures. Sometimes there is a loose stool with an admixture of mucus.
Diagnosis is established only when confirmed by laboratory test results.
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Candida colon cancer
Kandidamikoz intestines can be called a variety of complicated course of dysbiosis. The causes of the disease are unchanged:
- the state of immune deficiency;
- prolonged antibiotic therapy;
- malnutrition caused by deficiency of proteins and vitamins, excess carbohydrate food (especially simple carbohydrates);
- alcoholism, metabolic disorders.
The disease is divided into two forms: invasive and non-invasive.
Non-invasive candidamycosis of the intestine is most common. The disease is characterized by excessive development of fungal infection on the walls of the intestine, which is manifested by a feeling of discomfort, frequent and liquid stools, a general weakness of the body. There may be flatulence and heaviness in the abdomen.
Invasive candidamycosis is a relatively rare disease. Such pathology can develop in patients with AIDS, malignant tumors, as well as in people who have been treated with cytostatic or glucocorticosteroid drugs. Invasive form is accompanied by bloody diarrhea and signs of damage to other organs.
Separately, candidamycosis of the intestine is considered as a secondary disease after a peptic ulcer with a violation of the integrity of the epithelial tissue, as well as a perianal form of candidosis when the skin around the anus is involved in the process. This defeat often occurs among homosexuals and occurs against the background of other infections, in particular, herpes.
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Candidiasis of the skin
Kandidamikoz skin folds manifested by the formation in their depth of small pemphigus formations, which eventually open themselves on their own, and in their place appear jazvochki. The process is growing at a relatively rapid rate, the sores grow into large areas of erosion.
The symptoms of skin candidiasis are very specific: the zones affected by erosion have a characteristic raspberry tinge with light blue. The outer surface is slightly moist, has a clear lacquer luster. Ulcers have strict outline, limited by a narrow white "fringe" from the epidermal layers. On the skin, located in close proximity to the erosive site, it is possible to distinguish elements of the rash and small vesicular formations.
Often the skin becomes an object of destruction between the fingers. This form of the disease is typical for workers of food and processing enterprises, as well as for people who are actively engaged in household management.
Defeat of the folds of the skin between the buttocks and in the groin area, as a rule, are combined with candidiasis of the genital organs.
Kandidamikoz skin can occur against the background of nail damage. Often such a disease occurs after visiting public places where people can be barefoot: these are saunas, baths, common showers and pools. Fungus can be "earned" and in the salon of manicure, if there are unskilled workers who unfairly handle tools. Among the risk factors - the use of someone else's shoes, socks, manicure accessories, towels, etc.
The clinical picture of nail candidiasis is typical: at first the nail thickens and turns pink, there is soreness with palpation. When the transition to the chronic form of pain disappears, the nail grows dull and becomes thick with transverse dark furrows.
In recent times, there have been more frequent cases of atypical forms of skin candidiasis. The disease manifests itself in the development of folliculitis, papillomas, etc.
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Candidamycosis in men
Among the male population, the most common symptom of candidiasis is inflammation of the glans penis (balanitis) and internal part of the prepuce (postitis). As a rule, these inflammatory processes occur simultaneously. The disease occurs more often in patients with a narrow and long form of foreskin, as well as in persons neglecting the rules of personal hygiene.
At a balanoposthitis patients complain of sensations of an itch and a burning sensation in a place of a head of a member. Over time, the painfulness of this site also appears. Skin on the head and foreskin is richly pink, it is possible the appearance of puffiness. Defined grayish plaque, superficial sores and irritations.
Often against the background of balanoposthitis in men develops candidiasis urethritis - an inflammatory process in the urethra. The disease is characterized by a subacute onset, but sometimes it is asymptomatic, subsequently complicated by inflammation of the prostate gland, cystitis or epididymitis.
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