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Vaginal vomiting is a symptom of the development of intestinal obstruction of various etiologies. Usually, such vomiting occurs when the thick intestine is obstructed, and it begins several days after the onset of this acute surgical pathology.
Vomiting by the calves indicates that there is a serious abnormality of the gastrointestinal tract - either spilled peritonitis, or intestinal obstruction, or gastrointestinal fistula.
When intestinal blockage in one of the departments of the gastrointestinal tract a block is formed, because of what the contents of the intestine accumulate in this leading loop, expanding it. As the intestine expands, the release of kinins with histamine begins, and these substances increase the permeability of the vessel wall, and also contribute to the process of leakage of fluid in the digestive tract. In this case, the loss of circulating blood volume can reach up to 30-40%. As a result of the fact that the intestine mechanically increases in size, vomiting occurs, because of which the body loses electrolytes and water, which subsequently leads to dehydration and disruption of the electrolyte balance.
Symptoms of the vomiting
In case of vomiting, the following symptoms are also observed: sometimes the patient has weak emptying. He also feels pain, discomfort and heaviness in the abdomen, and with it there is a feeling of general weakness. When there is a blockage in the upper part of the intestine, vomiting with calves is often observed, several times a day.
Complications and consequences
Intestinal obstruction with vomiting can cause such consequences:
- Problems with the process of digestion, as well as with the absorption of nutrients into the blood;
- Autointoxication of the body by decomposition products;
- Due to vomiting and impaired absorption of water, dehydration can occur;
- There may also develop complications that threaten the patient's life - sepsis or peritonitis.
Diagnostics of the vomiting
The doctor conducts an external examination, which allows you to identify what the intestine in the abdomen is clearly visible - it protrudes noticeably. In addition, you can hear the rumbling of the stomach in times of acute attacks. Also in the course of the survey, there is a local swelling, which is called Val's syndrome.
After a diagnostic examination, the doctor should prescribe the delivery of urine and blood for a general analysis.
The procedures of instrumental diagnostics are also prescribed.
It is required to pass an ultrasound and an X-ray examination. The examination with ultrasound allows one to know the diameter of the intestinal loops and also to detect the accumulation of free fluid inside the abdominal cavity - these factors confirm the diagnosis.
In the surgery department, a reanalysis procedure can be performed to study the passage of barium through the intestine. Barium suspension can be seen with fluoroscopy, which makes it possible to establish the level of obstruction and evaluate how the disease proceeds. Emergency irrigoscopy (enema with barium) allows to identify the cause of pathology in the large intestine. In this case, the colon is completely filled, after which its condition is assessed by fluoroscopy.
Colonoscopy - in the process of this procedure, the colon is cleared, and then an endoscope is inserted through the anal entrance into it, through which the organ is examined from the inside. This method allows you to identify tumors, take a sample for biopsy and conduct intubation at the site of narrowing - this action will save the patient from manifestations of an acute form of intestinal obstruction. Thanks to these procedures, surgical intervention due to oncological disease will be performed in more comfortable conditions.
If the diagnosis of the disease is very difficult, a laparoscopy procedure is performed-through the puncture on the anterior abdominal wall, an endoscope is inserted inside, which allows you to examine the internal organs.
Treatment of the vomiting
Treatment of the disease begins with methods of conservative therapy. Initially, to stop vomiting, the patient is prescribed complete rest, and also for a time refusal from food. A nasogastric tube is inserted into the stomach through the nose, which helps to empty its contents. In this way, stop vomiting.
During the treatment, intravenous administration of drugs (anesthetic, antispasmodics, antiemetic) and solutions is performed. Uses also prozerin - it is injected under the skin to stimulate the motor activity of the intestine.
Prozerin should be administered under the skin 1-2 r. / Day. 1 ml of a solution of 0.05%. The maximum one-time dose is 0.002 grams per day, and 0.006 g can be administered per day. Side effects of the drug: severe sweating, hypersalivation, digestive disorders, dizziness and headaches, pollakiuria, visual impairment, twitching of the lingual muscles and skeletal musculature. The drug is contraindicated in hyperkinesis, epilepsy, angina and bradycardia, as well as with severe atherosclerosis and bronchial asthma.
Sodium chloride solution 0.9% is used with a strong loss of extracellular fluid (observed with continuing vomiting), intestinal obstruction, as well as hyponatremia and hypochloremia, combined with dehydration, and as a detoxification drug. Contraindicated in acidosis, hypernatremia and hyperkalemia, pulmonary edema and brain, extracellular hyperhydration, left ventricular failure in acute form. Among the side effects: hyperhydration, acidosis, as well as hypokalemia.
Beetroot can be used as an alternative treatment for vomiting in case of intestinal obstruction. Tincture is prepared as follows - boil in a pan water (5 liters), clean 0.5 kg of beet, and add them to water. Leave to boil for 45 minutes, then leave for 3 hours to infuse. Then tincture should be filtered, add to it 150 g of sugar, as well as yeast (1 tsp). The resulting drink should be left for a day, and then drink without restrictions at any time and in any quantities.
Intestinal obstruction is also treated with enemas using oil and milk. You can make a mixture for an enema in the following way - heat up 100 g of milk and melt 20 grams of melted butter in it. The resulting medication should be poured into the enema, after which it can be used to inject the patient into the anus. Next, you need to lie on your left side for a while (so that the medicine has passed into the intestines as deeply as possible). A similar procedure should be performed before bedtime (2 hours) for 3 days.
Herbal treatment also helps to cope with the manifestations of the disease.
Effective is the recipe, which uses sand sedge and St. John's wort. To make the medicine it is necessary to take 100 g of sedge, as well as 70 g of St. John's wort, finely chop them and fill them in a thermos (the volume of the thermos must contain at least 3 glasses of water (600-650 g)). Next, you need to let the herbs to brew during the night, and drain the infusion next morning. The medicine should be taken before meals four times a day for 1 week. A single dose should be ¾ a stack. (about 175-180 g).
Fennel may also be used to treat intestinal obstruction. Usually this recipe is used for children. The decoction is made as follows: 0.5 tsp. Fennel to fall asleep in a cup, pour it with boiling water, cover and leave for 15-20 minutes. Drinking beverages with fennel helps to improve intestinal peristalsis. An alternative option is the use of tea bags with fennel - this is a more convenient way.
The homeopathic preparation of Conium is prescribed for mild vomiting or mild peristalsis. It is used under the tongue until it is completely resorbed - for a single dose of 8 granules per day, it is necessary to do 5 medications per day. The treatment course usually lasts 8 weeks. If necessary, it can be re-assigned.
Among the contraindications to taking the drug is an individual hypersensitivity to any compound substance, during pregnancy and lactation, with kidney and epilepsy in severe forms, and also for children under 18 years of age. Conium is cautiously prescribed to people with hypotension. Among the side effects are rare manifestations of dermatitis or allergies. In case of an overdose, a strong lowering of the blood pressure is possible.
Operative treatment of intestinal obstruction is performed under general anesthesia (endotracheal anesthesia is used through intubation with additional use of muscle relaxants). The presence of this pathology involves the implementation of the midline incision in the abdominal cavity (its anterior wall) - the so-called wide median laparotomy. This incision is necessary for a complete examination of organs from the inside to reveal the cause of the appearance of intestinal obstruction. Once the cause is established, appropriate surgical procedures are performed.
Elimination of obstruction can be different methods - it depends on the degree of changes that occurred on the strangulated area of the intestine, the etiology of the disease, as well as the general condition of the patient. Most often perform such procedures:
- When turning, the detortion is performed;
- When invagination, the process of disinvagination is carried out;
- If there is an adhesive obstruction, dissection of adhesions is done;
- If gallstone blockage is observed due to the obstructing calculus, intestinal opening is performed to remove this obstruction;
- The non-viable part of the intestine or the part that is affected by the tumor is completely removed.
Before performing the operation, the bandages of the legs are performed with an elastic bandage to prevent the risk of blood clots in the veins of the shins.
As a preventive measure for the appearance of the disease or its relapse, it is necessary to cure in a timely manner pathologies that disrupt the process of food movement through the digestive tract. Among such methods are scheduled routine dispensary examination of the colon with the purpose of revealing the presence of a cancerous tumor, the timely elimination of hernias in the anterior wall of the abdominal cavity, and the removal of tumors detected in the large intestine.
After operations performed in the abdominal area, the patient should change the diet. Food should be consumed in small portions, but often (every 2-3 hours). In this case, you should limit the consumption of foods that contain a lot of fiber, as well as a variety of spices, as they irritate the intestinal mucosa.
Cervical vomiting is a sign of a serious illness, in which an unfavorable prognosis should be expected. That is why it is extremely important to diagnose intestinal obstruction before such vomiting begins. Often after the appearance of this symptom, the patient is diagnosed with bowel oncology at the last stage.