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Gastritis tomatoes: fresh, stewed, baked

Medical expert of the article

Gastroenterologist
, medical expert
Last reviewed: 16.04.2020

We are all waiting for the start of the summer season to get enough of these vegetables from the garden, as well as make preparations for the winter. But having a diagnosis of gastritis, you need to be careful in choosing them to rule out an exacerbation of the disease. So can tomatoes for gastritis?

Tomatoes are an important source of nutrition for the entire population of the world. Its world production is estimated at about 159 million tons, and the average annual consumption of fresh tomatoes is 18 kg per European and 8 kg per capita in the United States. [1] In the past few years, tomato consumption has increased even more, as tomatoes are marketed both fresh and in processed products such as soups, juices, mashed potatoes and sauces. [2]

Tomatoes with gastritis with high acidity

Gastritis is the general name for inflammatory and inflammatory-dystrophic conditions of the gastric mucosa. Chronic gastritis has two forms: neatrophic and atrophic. These are forms of gastritis that represent different stages of the same lifelong disease. [3],  [4]It includes such concepts as a violation of its secretory function, processes of regeneration of epithelial cells, their atrophy, the replacement with time of the glands of the mucous membrane on fibrous tissue.

Gastritis with high acidity occurs due to excessive synthesis of hydrochloric acid. All spicy, sour, fatty, coarse foods irritate the walls of the organ and provoke additional secretion of gastric juice.

Based on the chemical composition of a tomato, in which there are a lot of organic acids (malic, oxalic, citric, tartaric, succinic), folic and ascorbic acids, volatile alcohols and fiber are present,  [5]we can definitely say that this is the product that will become an irritant for a diseased organ.

Tomatoes with erosive gastritis

This form of gastritis means the presence of small defects - erosion on the gastric mucosa. Its chronic course is accompanied by periods of exacerbations and remissions. [6]In the first case, a special dietary nutrition system is required that completely eliminates the mechanical, chemical, or thermal effects of food. The tomato on the menu is inappropriate.

With a long lull without pain, heaviness in the stomach, or other symptoms characteristic of the disease, you can occasionally afford a small ripe sugar fruit weighing no more than 100 g.

Tomatoes with atrophic gastritis

Loss of mucous glands with atrophic gastritis is replaced by the growth of new immature glandular and epithelial elements; that is, glands of the intestinal type ("intestinal metaplasia (IM)"), resembling glands and epithelium in the colon and / or small intestine, and / or with the pyloric type ("pseudo-saw metaplasia"), resembling pyloric glands and epithelium, of which G -cells (gastrin cells) disappear. Within the framework of evolution, highly differentiated glands, epithelium and cells are destroyed by atrophy (atrophic gastritis), and lost glands are replaced by glands and epithelium with immature intestinal properties. [7],  [8],  [9], [10]

Atrophic gastritis is difficult to treat, the mucous membrane of the organ is thinned, the glands poorly produce secretions, useful substances are poorly absorbed, which is why vitamin deficiency is often present. 

After eating, pain in the epigastrium, severity, nausea appear.

This diagnosis requires a special approach to nutrition, and food should contain a lot of protein and fiber, vitamins and minerals. Vegetables can be eaten both raw and cooked (steamed, boiled or baked). Tomatoes are on the list of recommended products.

Tomatoes for gastritis and pancreatitis

Gastritis, weighed down by pancreatitis, puts forward additional nutritional requirements. Everything that causes secretion is harmful to the pancreas. It additionally produces pancreatic juice, the enzymes of which are necessary for processing food and its assimilation in the duodenum, but they do not get there due to a violation of its outflow. Instead, their own fabrics are recycled. Stable remission allows a ripe sweet tomato on the menu, but not often.

Detailed menu for every day

Thinking over daily food and dishes, you should consult with a medical diet (there are 15 treatment tables). For gastritis, diet No. 2 is used (for reduced secretion of gastric juice, others are also connected: No. 1, 4, 5).

It should be remembered that food should be frequent and fractional. It is difficult for a sick body to cope with a large amount of food, even dietary. It should be warm, not contain coarse fiber.

In acute periods, cereals (rice, semolina) predominate for breakfast; second breakfast - cottage cheese casserole; lunch - steam cutlet and porridge for a side dish, dried fruit jelly; afternoon snack - omelet; dinner - fish souffle, rosehip broth; before going to bed - a cup of low-fat milk.

The remission stage expands the gastronomic possibilities. With low acidity, you need to include products that stimulate the production of gastric juice.

The menu for every day may look something like this:

  • morning - oatmeal on water with the addition of butter, tea with toast and hard cheese;
  • second breakfast - baked apple;
  • lunch - broth soup, veal cutlets, cucumber salad and tomato, dried fruit compote;
  • afternoon snack - syrniki;
  • dinner - fish, a glass of tomato juice;
  • at night - kefir.

When cooking, you should not use legumes, whole milk, cabbage, grapes, garlic.

Hyperacid gastritis requires an even more balanced approach to your diet:

  • breakfast - milk soup made from cereals or pasta, tea, dried white bread;
  • second breakfast - lazy dumplings;
  • lunch - boiled chicken, rice, tomato, jelly;
  • afternoon tea - cookies "Maria", yogurt;
  • dinner - fish meatballs, vegetable stew, tea;
  • before going to bed - a glass of milk.

Each day of the week should be diversified with other products, adhering to dietary principles.

Dish recipes

It was found that the bioavailability of lycopene increases after heat-treated tomatoes compared to fresh tomatoes. [11],  [12]Gahler et al. [13]Investigated how heat treatment affects vitamin C and polyphenols, as well as hydrophilic antioxidant ability. The amount of β-carotene decreased or was stable, while the content of α-tocopherol increased significantly with short-term heating. [14]Patras et al. Examined the effect of heat treatment on the content of anthocyanins. The combination of individual operations, including heating, such as blanching, pasteurization and duration, affected the content of anthocyanins in fruits and vegetables.

  • Fresh tomatoes for gastritis

Having familiarized ourselves with the features of certain types of gastritis, we summarize: with inflammation of the mucosa in an aggravated state, fresh tomatoes cannot be eaten. The chronic course of the disease with high acidity in remission allows a limited consumption of fleshy ripe fruits, but it is better to peel or make juice from them.

Reduced acidity is not an obstacle to including them in the menu.

  • Braised tomatoes for gastritis

Heat treatment and / or homogenization can disrupt the cellular matrix of tomatoes, determining the bioavailability of various nutrients. [15]

Stewed tomatoes are less aggressive for the stomach, they have a lot of nutrients left, so by combining them with zucchini, pumpkin, carrots, you can cook a tasty and healthy vegetable stew. This dish goes well with dietary meat. It will saturate and not cause an undesirable reaction of the gastrointestinal tract.

Dish recipes

Even therapeutic cooking can be tasty and varied, because there are many recipes for dishes that are worth using:

  • soup - chicken pieces are placed in a pan, pour water, bring to a boil, the liquid is drained and refilled with water. Cook over low heat. There they put chopped potatoes, carrots, onions, cauliflower, tomato, chopped greens at the end of cooking. Salt moderately;
  • omelet - beat 2 eggs, add milk. On a heated frying pan in vegetable oil, let onions, tomato slices and zucchini. A slightly salted egg mixture is poured there, covered with a lid. The fire should be moderate so that the crust does not form;
  • rice casserole - the beans are boiled, but not until cooked. In the cooled porridge add an egg, pre-mixed with sugar, warm milk, baked and mashed pumpkin. In the oven, bring to readiness;
  • meat cutlets - make minced meat from two varieties of meat (chicken and veal), roll onions through a meat grinder there, add a white cracker soaked in milk, beat in an egg, form cutlets and let lie for half an hour. Steamed;
  • the fish fillet is transferred to the rings of onion, tomato, eggplant, wrapped in foil and baked.

The benefits of tomato

Eating tomatoes reduces the risk of inflammation, cancer, and chronic noncommunicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity.

Why should these vegetables still be on our menu if there is no good reason to completely delete them from it? The biochemical composition of the vegetable indicates its great value for the human body. It contains enzymes, proteins, organic and amino acids, mono-, polysaccharides, carotenoids. [16]The benefits of tomatoes are also in the abundance of vitamins: beta-carotene,  [17]PP, C  [18],  [19]E,  [20]H, K, group B, folates. [21]By the content of ascorbic acid they are equated with lemons. 

Tomatoes contain 8-40 microns g per gram of wet weight lycopene, about 80% of the total diet of this carotenoid. [22]Lycopene is the main phytochemical substance in tomato fruits due to its strong antioxidant role, associated with its ability to act as absorbers of free radicals from reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed during partial oxygen reduction. [23]

Numerous macro- (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorine) and trace elements (iron, zinc, iodine, copper, manganese, etc.), low calorie content (20 kcal) allow the vegetable to improve metabolism, prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases. [24],  [25]Pectin Tomato reduce the formation of "bad" cholesterol. [26],  [27]Tomato juice inhibits the growth of bacteria, fungal growth.

In tomatoes, phenolic compounds include flavonoids, phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids) and tannins. Polyphenols are effective free radical scavengers mediated by the para-hydroxyl group. Phenols can modulate cellular signaling processes during inflammation or can serve as signaling agents themselves. [28], [29

Polyphenolic compounds are associated with therapeutic agents in inflammatory diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, obesity and type II diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and aging.

These effects are due to the phenolic ability to interact with a wide range of molecular targets, which are central to the signaling mechanism of cells. Key molecular mechanisms include:

  • inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes such as cyclooxygenase (COX-2), lipoxygenase (LOX) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); 
  • inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3 kinase), tyrosine kinases and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κ B); 
  • activation of the gamma receptor activated by peroxisome proliferators (PPAR γ); 
  • activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase C (PKC), and modulation of several cell survival / cell cycle genes. [30], [31]

Major tomato varieties include flavonols (such as quercetin and kempferol), flavanols (such as catechins), flavanones (such as naringerin), anthocyanidins, and stilbenes (such as resveratrol). They are usually located in the peel and only in small quantities in other parts of the fetus. [32], [33]

Phenolic acids are responsible for the astringent taste of vegetables. These include hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acids. Hydroxybenzoic acids are gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatecholic, syringe and vanilla acids, while ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and synapic acids are hydroxycinnamic acids.

Contraindications

Tomatoes, along with benefits for the body, have many contraindications. Like any bright vegetable and fruit, they can cause allergies. [34]These fruits are also undesirable in case of cholelithiasis, because due to their strong choleretic effect, there are risks of stone movement and blockage of the bile duct.

Oxalic acid contained in them adversely affects water-salt metabolism, kidneys, joints suffer from this. [35]They are contraindicated in peptic ulcer.

All these warnings relate to fresh fruit, but canned tomatoes are completely undesirable.

Possible complications

Moderate eating a vegetable, taking into account the above recommendations, will not cause any complications. Otherwise, exacerbation of gastritis, pancreatitis may occur, joint pain, renal colic in the presence of stones in the body may occur, in allergy sufferers - skin rashes, their swelling and redness.


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