Aerobic exercise: what are the advantages?

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 19.10.2021

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Aerobic exercise - continuous, rhythmic physical activity for a long period; the exercise load can be maintained by aerobic metabolism (although short periods of a more intense load triggering anaerobic metabolism) can also be included at a constant level of at least about 5 minutes at first with a gradual increase. Aerobic conditions increase the maximum intake of O2 and cardiac output (mainly by increasing the stroke volume), reduce the heart rate at rest and reduce both cardiac mortality and mortality from other causes. However, excessive physical activity leads to excessive wear of the body and increases cellular oxidation. Examples of aerobic exercise: running, fast walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, rowing, kayaking, skating, skiing and the use of aerobics simulators (for example, a treadmill, walking up stairs, etc.) .

Aerobic metabolism begins within 2 minutes of the beginning of the exercise, but to achieve health benefits requires a longer workload. Usually recommend doing> 30 min per day 3 times a week, 5 min for warm-up and 5 min for cooling, but this recommendation is based on both objective data and in terms of convenience. Optimum aerobic loads are possible with activity for as little as 10-15 minutes 2-3 times a week, while observing the interval alternation. In the interval alternation, the person alternates short periods of moderate activity with a strong voltage; one of the regimes consists in alternating about 90 with moderate activity [60-80% of the maximum heart rate (HR)] from 20-30 s with the maximum intensity intensity according to the type of sprint race (85-95% of the heart rate or the maximum possible for this person During this time). With this mode, the load goes more to the joints and tissues, so it should be used occasionally or alternated with more habitual physical exercises of low or medium intensity.

Simulators with resistance or loose loads can be used in aerobic training until the desired number of repetitions is reached, rest between them should be minimal (20-60 sec) with a relatively high load intensity. In a circular training, train small muscles (shoulders, arms, abdomen and neck), then large muscles (legs, hips, back and chest). Circuit training for only 15-20 minutes is more useful for the cardiovascular system than jogging or aerobics on the simulators for the same period of time, since it requires more effort.

The amount of aerobic exercise is usually divided by duration. The intensity is determined by the heart rate. The optimal heart rate to select a suitable intensity varies from 60 to 85% of the heart rate [HR patient during peak consumption About volume (V0 2pik or frequency above which maintain aerobic metabolism will be impossible, since insufficiently O and begins anaerobic metabolism]. HR max can measured directly or calculated using the following formula:

Heart rate = 220 - age.

To calculate the target heart rate, you can use the Carvonen formula:

Target heart rate = [(0.5 to 0.85)

However, the more athletes or untrained people are compared to the average, the less accurate are these formulas, which makes the determination of the metabolism / VO ratio more valuable.

The calendar age should be distinguished from the biological one. Patients of any age not adapted to aerobics (less prepared) reach the target heart rate much more quickly and with less effort. However, they need shorter periods of exercise, at least initially. Obese patients may be untrained, and as they are forced to move a large body mass, the heart rate rises much faster and more with less effort than the more slender patients. Disease and some medications (eg, beta-blockers) can also change the relationship between age and heart rate. For such groups, the target value of 50-60% of the heart rate max, apparently, is sufficient.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9]

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