Bladder X-rays are one of the most common medical procedures. However, it requires prior preparation. Has its own indications and contraindications for conducting.
As a rule, any X-ray examination of the organs of the urinary system begins with a plain X-ray. In this case, the kidneys and upper urinary tract are subject to research. You will need to prepare in advance for the procedure. In particular, in the evening, on the eve of the study, it is necessary to carry out a preliminary cleansing enema. On the morning of the study itself, you can have a light breakfast. If an X-ray examination of the bladder is carried out, one cleansing enema in the morning, directly on the day of the procedure, is often sufficient. If the procedure is planned for young people who have a fairly well functioning intestine, in particular, there are no problems with its cleansing, an X-ray examination may not be required. 
The procedure itself is as follows: first, an image of the kidney area is taken, then the ureter and bladder are examined. The procedure allows you to assess the shape, position of the kidneys, their functional and anatomical features, as well as the specifics of the construction of the surrounding bone skeleton and muscles. The overview image also shows the edge of the psoas muscle quite clearly. This makes it possible to assess her condition and to exclude the radiation of pain in the presence of acute or chronic pain syndrome. The survey procedure allows you to assess the general condition of the body, to assess the features of the location and functioning of the organs of the genitourinary tract. It is also possible to timely detect stones in the kidneys and ureters, study the structural and functional features of the bladder. In men, the prostate gland and urethra are subject to additional research. Oxalates, phosphates and carbonates are especially well visualized in plain X-ray, since they very well block X-rays. The surrounding tissues are much less able to trap X-rays, therefore the presence of stones contrasts sharply with the surrounding tissues. In the form of a faint shadow, urates, xanthine or cystine stones can be found.
Sometimes, using plain radiography, phlebolitis can be diagnosed. This is an inflammatory-degenerative disease of the veins of the genitourinary tract. It occurs mainly in the pelvic cavity. In this case, individual parts of the veins are subject to calcification. In some cases, nearby lymph nodes may be calcified, which happens if there are areas of neoplasms. In order to confirm or deny the presence of a neoplasm, additional research methods are used. In particular, you can visualize stones and separate them from shadows using an overview image, which is taken in a direct or oblique projection. In this case, a catheter is inserted into the ureter. If a stone is present in the kidneys or ureter, its shadow completely coincides with the shadow of the catheter in both projections. If the shadow comes from phlebolitis, lymph nodes, neoplasms, it is located separately from the catheter, often turns in the opposite direction.
Cystography means one of the types of X-ray examination of the genitourinary tract. The procedure is carried out when the bladder is filled with sergozin solution. If it is absent or impossible to introduce, gas (oxygen) is used. Accordingly, an x-ray is obtained, which shows the cavity of the bladder. By the nature of the image, one can judge the presence or absence of pathological changes in the genitourinary tract. So, normally, the bladder is completely filled with a contrast agent, and has a rounded shape. At the same time, the density of the contrast agent is the same, its contours are even.
Using the method of cystography and its various modifications, it is possible to reveal the shadows of stones, including the shadows of urates. So, urates have the form of X-ray negative areas. With the help of cystography, a differential diagnosis can be made for many pathological conditions. In particular, it is possible to finely differentiate the localization of the urinary stone. So, if the stone is located in the bladder, or in the lower segment of the ureter, it will be clearly visible on an x-ray. The procedure allows for a differentiated diagnosis in urology and gynecology. In particular, using this method, it is possible to distinguish the shadow of a calcified myomatous node affecting the uterus from the shadow of a stone or neoplasm (node) located in the genitourinary tract. Bladder calculus can be diagnosed. Often the method of cystography is used to diagnose diverticula (volvulus) of the bladder, to identify anomalies in its development. An important role is given to the diagnosis of the tumor process. At the same time, both benign and malignant neoplasms can be easily diagnosed. In addition, it is possible to estimate the size, localization features, size, degree of infiltration of the tumor process, the bladder wall. 
An important role of cystography is played in the diagnosis of tuberculous lesions of the bladder, in the development of a viral or bacterial infection. This is especially important in the event that it is not possible to conduct a catheterization of the bladder. Using the cystography method, you can determine the uretecele, accurately establish its size, localization, and other important characteristics. This method is indispensable in the diagnosis of a hernia of the bladder, in determining the degree of deviation of the bladder, which is extremely important when performing plastic surgery. In particular, this method is used both immediately before the procedure for plastic surgery of the bladder, and immediately after it. In gynecology, this method makes it possible to reveal the presence of a connection between diseases of the bladder and uterus, as well as its appendages, to determine the degree of their mutual influence on the course of the pathological process, on the development of dysuric pathologies and disorders. The method is used to differentiate conditions such as pericystitis, paracystitis, and other forms of cystitis. Using this method, you can recognize various forms of cystic fistulas, diagnose various forms of reflux. It is also possible to diagnose neurogenic forms of bladder disease.
The cystography method is indispensable in the diagnosis of congenital and acquired anomalies of the bladder. First of all, we are talking about conditions such as exstrophy of the bladder, anomalies of the apex of the bladder, urachus, double bladder.
In the presence of a doubled bladder, this is clearly visible in the picture. So, the bladder is divided into two independent parts using a septum. Moreover, each cavity has a separate communication with the urethra. That is, the urethra is separate for each part of the urethra... In fact. A double urethra is visualized in the picture. Or one of the halves of the bladder opens into the urethra. The cystogram is the basis for the diagnosis. Moreover, additional research methods are often not required. When analyzing the images, you can see that two halves of the bladder are clearly visible on them. There is a clear partition between them. In the apex region, this septum is represented by an oval outline. A shadow appears that resembles a heart of cards. Also, sometimes with the help of a cystogram, anomalies of the bladder, manifested in the form of an hourglass, can be diagnosed. In this case, one half of the bubble is located directly above the other. In this case, the study is carried out in the craniocaudal direction.
By urography of the bladder is meant a diagnostic procedure in which a solution of a monatomic, diatomic or triatomic compound of iodine (respectively, sergozin, diodon, or triiotrast) is injected into a vein. The molecules of these substances are excreted by the kidneys. In this case, there is no elimination of free iodine. Accordingly, a phenomenon such as iodism occurs, as a result of which contrasting of the urinary tract occurs. The contrast agent completely fills the renal pelvis, is secreted through the ureter and penetrates into the bladder. A series of pictures is taken (at regular intervals). In this case, all sections of the urinary tract are examined. The first picture is taken 7-10 minutes after the injection of the contrast medium, the second picture is taken approximately 15-20 minutes later, the third - 30-40 minutes after the injection of the contrast medium. 
The procedure has a number of advantages, in particular, it is an absolutely painless method. It is non-invasive, the risk of injury is completely excluded. Pre-catheterization of the bladder and cystoscopy are not required. Also, the advantage of the method is that it is possible to study the morphological picture of the urinary tract, as well as to study their structural and functional state, to investigate the structural and functional features of the urinary tract, kidneys (both one and two at the same time). Nevertheless, it should be noted that the image clarity sometimes leaves much to be desired, in particular, it is significantly inferior to the methods of retrograde pyelography. It is especially difficult to conduct research with this method in the event that kidney function is reduced.
It should also be borne in mind that the procedure has some contraindications. In particular, the procedure cannot be carried out in case of acute liver diseases, with many diseases of the blood and dysfunction of hematopoiesis, with Gravesism, as well as during menstruation. High azotemia is a strict contraindication.