To eliminate itching in a child, it is important to first determine its origin. If this is not done, then it will be almost impossible to get rid of the misfortune, since the symptom will occur immediately after the completion of the use of a particular drug.
The first measures that parents should pay attention to should be as follows:
- the room in which the child is located must be systematically ventilated, and the air must be humidified in order to avoid excessive dryness of the skin;
- baby clothes and bedding should be made from natural materials;
- the child should bathe regularly, but not too often, using hypoallergenic detergents and warm (not hot) water.
Regarding drug therapy, we can only say that it is used according to the detected provoking disease.
- If the discomfort is associated with insect bites, then it is recommended to lubricate the affected area with a slurry of soda with water, or with Fenistil gel.
- In case of allergic itching, it is necessary to interrupt contact with a probable allergen, give the baby sufficient volumes of liquid, offer any enterosorbent (activated carbon, Enterosgel, Polysorb, etc.). Antihistamines can only be prescribed by a doctor.
- With chickenpox, itching is eliminated by the use of external agents: Fenistil, Viferon, Acyclovir, Oxolinic ointment. It is allowed to take sedatives on the recommendation of a doctor.
- If an unpleasant symptom is associated with problems in the digestive or urinary systems, then it is recommended to try agents such as activated charcoal, Diazolin, Nikoflex ointments or Capsaicin, Enterosgel.
- In case of liver disorders (for example, with cholestasis, jaundice), Ursohol, Ursofalk, Enterosgel are prescribed.
- With the endocrine nature of the disorder, the underlying disease is treated - for example, thyroid dysfunction, diabetes mellitus. During the normalization of the state of the endocrine system, the itching of the skin also disappears.
- In case of anemia, the problem is eliminated by the use of appropriate drugs - for example, iron-containing agents, as well as by correcting the child's nutrition.
The need for the use of certain medications is assessed by the doctor, who also calculates the dosage for the child on an individual basis.
How to relieve itching in atopic dermatitis in a child?
Atopic dermatitis is treated only under the supervision of a medical specialist. Enzyme preparations, vitamin-mineral complexes, short courses of antihistamines, as well as external skin treatments can be prescribed.
Small children are often recommended to take baths with herbal infusions (for example, chamomile, sage, string). But the most important thing is to eliminate the potential allergen that caused such a reaction in the child's body as atopic dermatitis. Parents can take the following important steps:
- offer the baby clothes only with a natural composition of fabrics, avoid buying suspiciously cheap things, be sure to wash new baby clothes before putting them on for the first time;
- carefully choose detergents and washing powder, do not use additional flavoring and softening (conditioning) additives;
- iron all the baby's things with a hot iron;
- pay attention to the choice of toys (they should also be as natural and hypoallergenic as possible);
- prevent the accumulation of house dust, do not use aerosols and sprays, any aromatic (perfumed) products with a child;
- avoid contact of the baby with any animals;
- prevent both hypothermia and overheating of the child's body, monitor sufficient fluid intake;
- monitors the quality of digestive processes, prevent constipation;
- often walk with the baby, avoid smoking places;
- Do not use any medications without the advice of a doctor.
As practice shows, if you follow these tips, you can save the baby from itching even without the use of drugs.
Medicines for ridding a baby of skin itching are conditionally divided into three main groups. These are antihistamines, glucocorticoids and mast cell membrane stabilizers.
Antihistamines provide a blockade of histamine receptors, stopping the development of an allergic reaction. Thanks to them, for several hours the intensity of pathological sensations is noticeably reduced, swelling subsides and redness disappears. Frequent side effects when taking antihistamines are signs such as drowsiness, fatigue, headaches. Third-generation antihistamines are devoid of such side effects and are more easily tolerated by patients.
Antihistamine tablets for itching are prescribed only by a doctor:
Antihistamines I generation
Able to relieve discomfort within half an hour after taking the pill. It is used to treat children from 3 years of age. Suprastin is indicated for neurodermatitis, allergies from insect bites. Take half a tablet 2-3 times a day, until the allergic symptoms are eliminated. Side effects: drowsiness, headache.
Designed for internal use, for children from three years. Tablets are taken after meals, 50 mg 1-3 times a day, depending on the doctor's prescription. Side effects: sleep disturbance, dry mouth, irritability.
An antihistamine with a pronounced sedative effect can be prescribed to children over 6 years of age. Tavegil is taken before meals, with water. The usual dosage is half or a whole tablet in the morning before breakfast and at bedtime. Side effects are expressed in fatigue, drowsiness, irritability, headaches.
Antihistamines II generation
A lactose-containing drug that is prescribed to children from 2 years of age. The average possible dosage is 1 tablet once a day. It is possible to use Loratadine in the form of a syrup (the dosage is determined by the doctor). Side effects in the form of drowsiness and dizziness are very rare.
A drug for the symptomatic elimination of itchy sensations in adults and children from 12 years of age. As a standard, take one tablet once a day, with water. During treatment, complaints of increased fatigue, dizziness, dry mouth, drowsiness are possible.
Third generation antihistamines
The drug is recommended for the treatment of allergies in children from 12 years of age. The therapeutic dose is 120 mg once a day, before meals. During the treatment period, the appearance of headache, nausea, insomnia, increased excitability of the nervous system is not excluded.
Prerarat exists in the form of tablets and syrup. Tablets are indicated for the treatment of children from 12 years of age, and for young children it is recommended to give the remedy in the form of a syrup, starting from the age of six months. Dosages in each situation are individual. Side effects are rare - no more than 3% of cases (fatigue, headache, thirst).
Glucocorticoid drugs of hormonal origin also do an excellent job with allergic problems, as they can influence any cellular structures responsible for the development of allergies. But glucocorticoids are not commonly prescribed because they have a long list of side effects that make their use undesirable. For example, it is often possible to observe digestive disorders, blood pressure instability, headaches, etc. Glucocorticoids are taken for no more than ten days, and only under the supervision of a doctor.
Mast cell blocking agents are most commonly prescribed to relieve chronic itching. Their action is as follows. When the allergen enters the body, the production of immunoglobulins begins in response. The latter, coming into contact with immunocytes (mast cells), stimulate the release of histamines into the blood - provocateurs of the main symptoms of allergies, including itching. The drug Ketotifen is able to break this chain, as a result of which the release of histamine is inhibited, an allergic reaction does not develop. The action of Ketotifen is cumulative, so it will not immediately stop the allergy. It is for this reason that the drug is preferred to be prescribed to eliminate chronic processes.
The use of Ketotifen for the treatment of babies is possible only when they reach 3 years of age.
Ointments and creams for itching for children
Ointments and creams are always used with caution, since not all of them are allowed in pediatrics, and can even cause an allergy-type hypersensitivity reaction in an infant, which will aggravate the situation radically. Topical preparations should not be underestimated by relying on their relative safety compared to systemic preparations. It is better to consult a doctor.
Antipruritic ointments and creams are divided into two categories:
- containing hormonal components;
- without hormonal components in the composition.
Non-hormonal drugs are safer, have fewer side effects, and many of them can be used almost immediately after birth. These are the means:
- Fenistil gel - is prescribed to get rid of itching sensation associated with allergic processes, insect attack, sun exposure. Side effects are considered rare, only occasionally there is a slight dryness of the skin at the site of application. The gel is applied to the skin undamaged by scratching, children older than 1 month.
- Gistan is a complex herbal remedy that successfully copes with itchy symptoms in atopic dermatitis, urticaria, mosquito or midge bites. Rarely, the drug itself can also cause allergies. Important: Gistan and Gistan-N are two potentially different drugs. The last of them has a hormonal basis and is not used in pediatric practice.
- Skin Cap is a product based on active zinc that helps to eliminate discomfort caused by dry or fungal skin diseases, allergies, midge bites. The cream is used only under strict indications, since there have been no directed studies regarding the safety of this drug for children's use. It is better to consult with a specialist.
With severe itching against the background of an active inflammatory process in the skin, other external preparations are prescribed in combination with general therapy:
- Desitin - suitable for the treatment of both infants and older children, can be applied to the area of blistering rashes and weeping sores. If there is a discharge of pus from the inflamed elements, then the use of the drug should be discontinued - most likely, preliminary antibiotic therapy will be needed.
- Vundehil is a combined herbal cream that helps to get rid of the discomfort that occurs with ultraviolet burns, allergies, neurodermatitis, psoriasis. The cream should not be used if the baby is allergic to bee products. The course of therapy is usually 1-4 weeks, but no more.
- Elidel is a popular cream that effectively relieves the unpleasant symptoms that accompany eczema or allergic dermatitis. The product is suitable for use in children older than 3 months. It should be taken into account that during the first few days of treatment, the situation may worsen: the skin turns red, a burning sensation appears. Such signs are transient and disappear on their own, you should not stop applying the cream.
Ointments with a hormonal composition are prescribed only in extreme cases, when other external agents do not cope with their tasks. Hormonal drugs act quickly and effectively, but have a long list of side effects, including impaired adrenal function and even hypercortisolism (Itsenko-Cushing's disease).
What hormonal external agents are allowed to be used for itchy dermatoses (of course, after talking with the doctor)? These are Elocom, Skinlight, Uniderm, Clobetasol, Advantan.
It is undesirable to use Lorinden, Betazone, Triderm, Diprosalik, Fucicort, Flucinar.
Under the ban for the treatment of children are products based on hydrocortisone: Betameson, Hydrocortisone ointment, Fluorocort, etc.
The role of various trace elements and vitamins cannot be overestimated, but their deficiency can cause the development of many diseases, including causing itching disorders.
- Lack of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, vitamins B, A and PP leads to a weakening of the immune defense, makes the skin defenseless against pathologies.
- With a lack of ascorbic acid, the dermis loses firmness and elasticity, dryness and peeling appear.
- Vitamin A deficiency affects the condition of the hair, skin and nails. The outer cover becomes dry, there is a persistent itchy sensation.
- Tocopherol is a natural antioxidant, it improves the condition and restores the epidermis, provides elasticity and firmness.
In order to replenish the reserves of vitamins in the body, you need to diversify the baby's menu with products such as citrus and root vegetables, eggs, wheat germ, broccoli, cottage cheese, walnuts, lettuce, salmon, bananas.
If the baby is prone to anemia, treatment should be prescribed by a doctor.
A good effect on skin itching is observed when exposed to phototherapy and afferent methods. The use of narrow-band ultraviolet irradiation has demonstrated success in the treatment of psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, lichen planus, urticaria, and metabolic disorders.
There is evidence of relief of resistant childhood pruritic dermatosis using invasive procedures such as plasmapheresis, plasma sorption, hemosorption, albumin dialysis.
The principle of the effect of plasmapheresis in the treatment of atopic dermatitis and other similar pathologies is due to the extraction of interleukins from the blood stream with circulating immune complexes. At the same time, the action of the trigger factor is blocked, and the access of other medicines to the affected area is improved.
Not all parents have access to the necessary medicines. Sometimes it may not be possible to quickly seek medical help. In such situations, the use of alternative treatment is justified - for example, applying lotions, taking baths with herbal infusions. Plants with antipruritic properties such as chamomile, oak bark, lavender, fenugreek, oats, and mint have proven themselves well.
You can wipe itchy skin with half-diluted vinegar (not essence!).
In the absence of allergies to bee products, you can do procedures with propolis ointment. For the treatment of affected skin, a pharmacy tincture of propolis is also suitable, which successfully eliminates discomfort and softens the epidermis.
A natural remedy - mummy - is a resinous substance that is extracted from rocky crevices. This substance contains a large number of minerals and organic components that accelerate local metabolic processes and promote rapid skin regeneration. Itching in a child can be eliminated by using a 2% mummy solution: the outer cover is wiped with a liquid or used to apply compresses.
Anti-itch tea based on lemon balm leaves soothes, eliminates skin irritation, and reduces the manifestation of discomfort. To properly prepare such tea, take 1 tbsp. L. Lemon balm and pour 200 ml of boiling water. Give the baby a little during the day. Treatment is usually long, up to one month.
Baths with the addition of infusion of a string eliminate signs of allergies, relieve itching discomfort and cleanse the body of a rash. To prepare the infusion take 2 tbsp. L. Series, pour 200 ml of boiling water, insist under the lid until cool, then filter and pour into the bath. In such a bath, you can bathe a baby, or make lotions from the infusion. During the day, wipe itchy skin with this remedy: pour 2 tbsp. L. A series of 100 ml of boiling water, kept under the lid for a quarter of an hour, filtered and used as a lotion.
Well eliminates itching in a child tincture of calendula. With its help, it is possible to prevent infection of scratches, accelerate skin recovery. The tincture is sold in almost any pharmacy, but self-preparation is not excluded: 10 g of raw calendula is poured into 250 ml of alcohol and kept in a dark place for a couple of weeks. Next, the product is filtered and used to wipe itchy areas. If during processing there is a burning sensation, then the tincture is additionally diluted with water.
Itchy discomfort in children is usually the main sign of dermatological problems and allergies. It is possible to treat such pathologies, both in traditional ways and with the help of homeopathy. Homeopaths usually offer remedies for influencing the body's own defense system in order to increase its resistance to disease. Such treatment is safe, because it can be prescribed even to babies. However, it is not easy: in almost all cases, homeopathic remedies need to be selected individually, sometimes using their combinations, and taking them for a long time.
However, the success of homeopathic treatment is obvious to many. The main condition is to find a good experienced homeopath who will select exactly the medicine that will help the child in this particular case.
Which of the drugs can the doctor advise:
- Sulfur - will help with a strong itching sensation, worse at night and after any exposure to heat.
- Calcarea carbonica is recommended for dry rashes, burning sensations that are aggravated in warm, humid conditions.
- Acidum fluoricum - helps if severe itching discomfort is accompanied by severe peeling of the skin, the appearance of a small rash.
- Stizolobium - is used for intense itching manifestations without visible rashes.
- Nicollum metallicum - prescribed for itchy rashes, or with focal lesions (itching of the neck, shoulder girdle).
- Konium maculatum - helps to eliminate itching of the genitals.
Homeopathic treatment is usually mild and is not accompanied by side effects, including allergic ones. However, after taking the first dose, the child should be closely monitored, since the possibility of an allergy is still not excluded.