Technique of transfusion

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 20.11.2021

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Caution: Before beginning the transfusion, it is necessary to check the labeling of the container, carry out compatibility tests to ensure that the component is intended for the recipient.

Using a number 18G needle (or more) prevents mechanical damage and hemolysis of red blood cells. The standard filter should always be used for transfusion of all blood components. Only a solution of 0.9% sodium chloride is allowed to be added to the container with transfused blood. Hypotonic solutions cause hemolysis of erythrocytes, calcium contained in Ringer's solution, can cause the formation of a clot.

Transfusion of a single dose or blood component should be completed within 4 hours, with longer transfusions, the risk of bacterial growth increases. If it is necessary to slow the transfusion caused by heart failure or hypervolemia, the blood components can be divided into smaller aliquots in the blood bank. For children, 1 dose of blood should be divided into small sterile aliquots that can be used for several days, thereby reducing the risk of immunization.

Careful observation of the patient is necessary, especially in the first 15 minutes of transfusion, including recording of temperature, blood pressure, pulse and respiratory rate. Periodic monitoring is performed during and after transfusion, during the whole period the fluid balance is assessed. The patient should be sheltered and warmed to prevent chills, which can be regarded as a transfusion reaction. Performing transfusions at night is undesirable.

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