Tablets from tuberculosis
Tuberculosis is a serious infectious disease that develops after infection with a special kind of bacteria - mycobacterium. To date, the most effective drugs are pills from tuberculosis.
Indications of the tablets from tuberculosis
Tablets from tuberculosis are used in case of appearance of the following main symptoms of this disease:
- Constantly elevated body temperature, most often subfebrile.
- Very strong cough, sometimes the patient can expectorate blood.
- The patient strongly and rapidly loses weight.
- Frequent headaches.
- Shortness of breath when walking and strong night sweats.
Tuberculosis usually affects men after 40 years. There are several types of this disease. The most common is pulmonary tuberculosis, but also there is tuberculosis of the joints and bones, tuberculosis of the genitourinary system. Despite its seriousness, this disease can be cured with the help of modern medications, in particular, various tablets that are sold in pharmacies. What are they different?
Various types of tablets were proposed by the International Union Against Tuberculosis. They can be divided into three separate categories:
- Tablets with flomiricin sulfate.
- Tablets based on streptomycin sulfate.
- Preparations with cycloserine.
Another classification is also used. She shares all the pill from tuberculosis into two large groups:
- The first row: Streptomycin, Isoniazid and others.
- Second row: Ethionamide, Cycloserine, Kanamycin.
As you can see, different antibiotics and synthetic agents are used mainly against tuberculosis.
Let's look at the more popular tablets from tuberculosis.
A bactericidal drug that is used to treat tuberculosis patients. It shows a strong activity towards intracellular and extracellular bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is also used as a prophylaxis of the disease in those people and family members who are in constant contact with infected patients.
The dose is established by the attending physician-phthisitrom. It depends on the severity of the disease and its shape. Usually, isoniazid tablets are taken once a day (300 mg). Treatment can last several months, based on the severity of the form. In no case should you exceed the maximum daily dose - 300 mg.
Isoniazid is not allowed for patients who suffer from epilepsy, poliomyelitis, atherosclerosis, and suffer from convulsive seizures. Patients taking this drug should be ready for side effects: headaches, gynecomastia, allergies, nausea and even vomiting.
A popular antibiotic, which is often used to treat patients with tuberculosis. It has a good bactericidal effect, suppresses the synthesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA. May exhibit additional activity to Clostridium spp., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus anthracis, Legionella pneumophila, Rickettsia prowazekii, Neisseria meningitidis, Chlamydia trachomatis.
Drink tablets only on an empty stomach, with plenty of water. Dosage is standard for children and adults - once a day for 10 mg per kilogram of weight.
Patients who suffer from jaundice, pyelonephritis, hepatitis, kidney disease, Rifampicin is contraindicated. Also, tablets should not be taken if the patient has an allergy to rifampicin. Pregnant women drug can be prescribed only when the disease can have negative consequences for their health and life. In some cases, after taking pills, unpleasant symptoms may appear: Quincke's edema, diarrhea, vomiting, hepatitis, eosinophilia, headaches, a disorder in the menstrual cycle.
A popular antibiotic that belongs to the group of rifamycins. It is used for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, since it shows activity against M. Avium intracellulare complex and M. Tuberculosis. The active substance, which is part of the drug, is rifabutin.
You can take Rifabutin tablets regardless of meal intake once a day. You can use the drug as a prophylactic. In this case, the patient should take the pill once in a dosage of 300 mg. If tuberculosis was not diagnosed for the first time, therapy with Rifabutin continued for at least six months.
If the patient is also diagnosed with hepatic or renal failure or intolerance to rifabutin, these tablets can not be taken. Pregnant women and lactating mothers are not allowed to take the drug. Sometimes patients note that taking Rifabutin leads to vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, headaches, bronchospasm, anemia, arthralgia.
A popular antibiotic, which is part of the group of drugs with aminoglycosides. It is active in bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Yersinia spp., Shigella spp., Klebsiella spp., Haemophilus influenzae, Francisella tularensis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., Streptococcus spp. ..
The attending physician individually sets the appropriate dosage and duration of therapy for each patient. But you can not take more than the maximum daily dose: 4 g of the drug.
Patients with myasthenia gravis, obliterating endarteritis, cardiovascular or renal insufficiency, brain disorders are not allowed to take the drug. Also, do not use the product for pregnant women and patients during lactation.
Streptomycin can lead to the development of some unpleasant symptoms: diarrhea, albuminorrhia, hearing loss, nausea and vomiting, headache, allergies.
A popular antibiotic that is on the aminoglycoside list. It is characterized by a rather high activity against many bacteria: Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
For the treatment of adult patients who are ill with tuberculosis, Kanamycin is used according to the following scheme: six days to 1 g once every 24 hours. For treatment of children: 15 mg once every 24 hours. On the seventh day they take a break. The doctor determines the duration of treatment, depending on the severity of the disease.
Patients with hearing problems, liver function, gastrointestinal disorders can not receive Kanamycin. Also, the drug can not be used by pregnant women. The drug is not allowed to be taken concomitantly with those antibiotics that differ in nephrotoxic and ototoxic effect. Sometimes the reception of the antibiotic Kanamycin can be accompanied by such unpleasant symptoms: headaches, fatigue and drowsiness, granulocytopenia, anemia, constant ringing in the ears, hearing impairment, frequent urination, cylindruria, allergies.
The metaside is derived from isonicotinic acid hydrazide. It damages the membrane of bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which leads to their death.
Per day Metazide can be taken by adults no more than 2 g, children - 1 g. It is necessary to divide this dose into several doses (two or three). The drug is used to treat any form of tuberculosis.
Patients with angina pectoris, diseases of the central nervous system, heart defects and kidney failure taking tablets Metazide is completely banned. The same applies to pregnant women. During therapy, it is necessary to examine the fundus from time to time.
When using the drug from tuberculosis Metazide, some patients may experience side effects: peripheral neuritis, dizziness accompanied by severe headaches, convulsions, insomnia, euphoria, memory loss, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, pain in the heart (only with prolonged admission) .
Tablets from tuberculosis, which are based on the active substance (antibiotic) viomycin. It has bacteriostatic specific action against many bacteria: Streptomyces floridae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is a second-line anti-tuberculosis drug.
The attending physician prescribes the dosage and duration of therapy individually for each patient. They depend on the severity of the disease and its shape.
Patients with impaired renal function, as well as intolerance to the antibiotic, can not take this medication. For children, use with extreme caution, since tablets can affect hearing development. Do not administer concurrently with other tuberculosis tablets (monomycin, neomycin, or kanamycin). Very often during the intake of Viomycin, hearing impairment, headaches, proteinuria and allergies are possible.
Anti-tuberculosis, which includes antibiotic cycloserine. It has a wide spectrum of action. It can act bactericidal or bacteriostatic with respect to the following bacteria: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rickettsia spp.
Drinking tablets from tuberculosis Cycloserine is necessary before meals. Take medicine better after eating. The first 12 hours to drink 0.25 g. Then the dose can be increased by 250 mg every eight hours. Do not take more than the maximum daily dose (1 g).
Patients with hypersensitivity, epilepsy, diseases of the central nervous system, mental disorders, kidney and heart failure, alcoholism, the drug is prohibited. Take care when treating children.
Cycloserine tablets can lead to the following side effects: heartburn, vomiting, diarrhea, sleep disorders, headaches, psychosis, emotional depression, memory impairment, tremor, severe cough, fever.
Tablets from tuberculosis, which includes ethambutol hydrochloride. They differ in bacteriostatic action with respect to atypical and typical mycobacteria.
Treatment is carried out in stages. First, 15 mg per kilogram of patient's body weight is prescribed once a day. The dose gradually increases to 30 mg per kilogram of weight. The course of therapy is nine months. If a patient is diagnosed with renal failure, the dosage is prescribed based on the creatinine clearance.
Patients with cataract, various inflammatory processes in the eyes, gout, diabetic retinopathy, renal insufficiency can not take Etambutol, since the drug can cause strong side effects. Also, the drug is prohibited for pregnant women and small children.
Very often during the reception of these tablets, retrobulbar inflammation of the optic nerve can occur, which leads to a deterioration in visual acuity. Also, patients notice headaches, nausea, an unpleasant taste in the mouth, hallucinations, sleep disorders, convulsions.
Prothionamide, which is used to treat tuberculosis, is on the list of second-line drugs. The mechanism of action is to block the synthesis of mycolic acid, which is considered to be the main structural element in the bacterial membrane wall. Can be used with other anti-tuberculosis drugs, to reduce the possibility of developing resistance.
Drink tablets should be strictly after meals. Adults take 0.25 g three times a day, if the patient tolerates the drug well, the dose can be increased to 0.50 g.
Patients who also had cirrhosis of the liver, acute gastritis, acute hepatitis, colitis, can not take protionamide. Also, the drug is not allowed for people who abuse alcohol and pregnant women.
During therapy with protionamide, the following side effects may occur in patients: vomiting, loss of appetite, hypersalivation, pellagrope-like reaction, hypoglycemia, gynecomastia, hypothyroidism, headache, mental disorders.
An antituberculous drug of synthetic origin, which belongs to the second row of medicines for tuberculosis. Used to treat tuberculosis of any form at the same time as other drugs in this group. Has a bactericidal or bacteriostatic effect on bacteria, depending on their sensitivity.
Dosage is appointed individually by the attending physician. The maximum daily dose of tablets Pyrazinamide is 2 g of the drug, if taken once a day, and 3 g of the drug, if taken twice a week.
Patients with pyrazinamide intolerance or severe hepatic insufficiency should not take tablets. In some cases, taking Pyrazinamide can lead to nausea, vomiting, abnormalities in the liver, arthralgia, allergies, gout.
Tablets from tuberculosis on the basis of the derivative of hydrazide isonicotinic acid. They differ in their selective activity in relation to the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Tablets should be drunk two to three times a day in a dosage of 500 mg at a time (adults) or in the calculation of 30 mg per kilogram of weight (children). Do not exaggerate the maximum daily dose - 3 g.
Patients with angina pectoris, diseases of the central nervous system, heart defects, kidney disease take pills Ftivazid contraindicated. In some cases, the following symptoms develop in patients who receive Ftivazide: gynecomastia, menorrhagia, heart pain, allergies, vomiting, psychosis, memory impairment, headaches.
Synthetic antibacterial agent against tuberculosis. Tablets Thioacetazone can be taken only after meals. Dosage is usually prescribed by the attending physician, but most often is the following: 0.1 or 0.15 g per day. The dose can be divided into several doses. Be sure to drink the product with sufficient water.
The drug can not be used to treat tuberculous meningitis. During therapy, the patient should be carefully observed. Be sure to monitor the kidneys and liver. It is necessary to cancel the appointment if the patient has agranulocytosis.
Patients with malfunctioning kidney and liver, intolerance to thioacetazone, or diseases of the hematopoiesis are prohibited from taking these pills. In some cases, the following side effects were found: diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatitis, agranulocytosis, anemia, leukopenia, dermatitis, cylinduria, headaches.
Anti-tuberculosis drug, with active active substance in the form of aminosalicylic acid.
PASK tablets should be taken half an hour after meals. Drink plenty of water. Adults are prescribed 12 g per day, which are divided into three or four doses. If the patient is too exhausted, the dose is reduced to 6 g. For the treatment of children, 0.2 g per kilogram of body weight is used three to four times a day. But the dosage should not exceed 10 g per day.
Patients with hypersensitivity to salicylates, liver and kidney disease, gastrointestinal ulcer, myxedema, epilepsy are prohibited. In some patients, PASK tablets caused side effects: constipation or diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, jaundice, hepatitis (sometimes fatal), urticaria, hypoglycemia, vasculitis, hypotension, proteinuria, dermatitis, anemia.
Antibiotic for the treatment of tuberculosis, an aminosalicylic acid derivative. It is effective only against bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Typically, capreomycin is prescribed in combination with other anti-tuberculosis drugs. Dosage is always individual, as it depends on the form of tuberculosis and the severity of the disease. Therapy can last from six months to a year.
It is not recommended to use Capreomycin for the treatment of patients who have not reached the age of 18, since its effectiveness in this case was not established. Patients with hepatic and renal insufficiency should use tablets very carefully. It is forbidden to pregnant women.
Possible overdose Capreomycin, which causes nephrotoxic effect. Often the drug causes neurotoxicity, leukopenia, cylindruria, hypokalemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, hypomagnesemia, partial deafness, aseptic abscesses, bleeding and allergies.
Consider the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of tablets from tuberculosis on the example of the popular drug "Isoniazid."
This drug is included in the tablets of the so-called first-line. It differs bactericidal action against microorganisms that cause tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Has an inhibitory effect on DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and also leads to inhibition of the synthesis of mycolic acid, which is the main structural component of the membrane of bacteria that cause tuberculosis.
Absorption from the digestive tract occurs after taking the Isoniazid tablet very quickly. If you take the drug after eating, then its bioavailability will be reduced. Quickly begins to be distributed over all liquids and tissues. Virtually does not bind to plasma proteins. It is excreted by feces and urine (75-95%).
Use of the tablets from tuberculosis during pregnancy
Some anti-TB tablets, such as isoniazid, can be prescribed for the treatment of pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers. But this should be done with extreme caution. Most of these drugs are prohibited during pregnancy, because they can harm the health of women and the fetus.
Side effects of the tablets from tuberculosis
- Nausea, which is accompanied by vomiting.
- Constipation or diarrhea.
- Headaches that are accompanied by dizziness.
- Disorders of the psyche.
- Allergic rashes.
If the patient shows at least one side effect, you need to see a doctor. It can reduce the dosage of an existing one or prescribe another medicine.
Prophylactic pill against tuberculosis
Tablets are often prescribed for the prevention of tuberculosis. Some of them are also used to treat this disease: pyrazinamide, isoniazid and others. Often, doctors prescribe a course of vitamins and minerals, in particular, vitamin B6. Prescribe any drugs for the prevention of tuberculosis in children can only phthisiopathy.
Chemoprophylaxis with one of the anti-TB drugs is carried out only in outpatient settings and only for those children who fall into the following risk groups: 4, 5-A, 5-B. Preventive therapy is usually done using two drugs at a time. As a rule, the prevention of pills from tuberculosis is carried out for three months.