Rhinoviruses have different transmission mechanisms. Most often - direct contact or aerosol path. The entrance gates are the mucous membrane of the nose and conjunctiva. The main receptor of interaction in the human body with rhinovirus are ICAM-1, which are in large quantities in the posterior nasopharynx. Contrary to popular belief, kissing, ordinary conversation, coughing does not contribute to the spread of the disease.
Rhinoviruses are resistant to cold, but die due to heat, lack of moisture and antiseptics. You can get infected with a virus when you are in contact with a patient whose rhinovirus is present in the discharge from the nose. Rhinovirus spreads by airborne droplets. The variety of rhinoviruses ensures their invulnerability. A medical preparation or vaccine that successfully infects the protein envelope of a given strain is powerless in combating strains having the same protein but different structure. And when the strain of the virus has at least some resistance to the drug, natural selection and mutation will bring about the appearance of strains that will be absolutely resistant to the action of the drug.
Rhinoviruses attack not so many cells and harm from them is not so much. Then why such complications? The point here is the peculiarities of the mechanisms of immune defense. Affected cells produce special molecules, cytokines, which serve as a signal for triggering the cascade of cellular immunity reactions. It is because of them that we have such a bad feeling. Cytokines are the culprits of inflammation in the throat and abundant discharge of mucus. Feel healthy, you can not at all when immunity will defeat the rhinovirus, but only after the immune system begins to work as usual.
Today, doctors do not have the means to fight rhinoviruses effectively. Vaccinations are practically useless. No drug is capable of destroying the virus. The mistake of many is the intake of antibiotics, which are effective in fighting bacteria and are absolutely powerless in dealing with viruses. Often doctors prescribe antibiotics, even if they do not have confidence in the nature of the disease: it is a viral infection or bacterial infection. Careless treatment with antibiotics encourages the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
We greatly underestimate rhinoviruses. They have many types and science only begins to comprehend their diversity. At the end of the last century, scientists discovered several dozen strains that were attributed to two large genera. In 2006, scientists discovered a strain of rhinovirus in the United States, which was not related to any of these genera. And then it turned out that this is a representative of one more, the third kind, which is also very common. In different areas genes of strains of rhinovirus almost do not differ. This fact proves the very rapid spread of this third kind, which was called HRV-C.
Rhinoviruses have a genetic nucleus, which varies very little. But some genes of viruses change very rapidly. Scientists have found out that they are necessary for the survival of rhinoviruses, who entered the battle with human immunity. After the body began producing antibodies to cope with one strain of the virus, it is still vulnerable to other strains, as these antibodies are powerless against their protein envelope. The hypothesis is confirmed by the fact that a person is infected each year with several different strains of rhinovirus.
Despite these facts, some representatives of the academic world are optimistic about the future and believe that it is possible to develop a cure for rhinovirus. Since rhinoviruses have the same genetic nucleus, it can be assumed that it can not mutate. That is, rhinoviruses, whose mutation touched the nucleus, die. When people find a way to influence the core, the disease can be defeated.
But is there any sense in doing this? Rinovirus is dangerous because it opens the way to more dangerous pathogens. However, he himself is relatively safe. A week later the infected person already forgets about the symptoms, and 40% of those tested, who have found out the rhinovirus, did not even know about it - he did not show himself.
Scientists even recognize the beneficial effect of rhinovirus on the body. The collected data confirm that children who have survived relatively safe viral, including rhinovirus, and bacterial infections, are less exposed to immune disorders in adulthood. Rhinovirus, we can say, trains immunity, so that he does not react too actively to minor threats, and was able to concentrate on really serious dangers. Therefore, it is worth considering and, perhaps, changing the view on rhinoviruses: look at them not as enemies, but as wise trainers.
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