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Psychasthenia

Medical expert of the article

Psychiatrist, psychotherapist
, medical expert
Last reviewed: 26.06.2018

The diagnosis of "psychasthenia" is established with personality disorders, which are characterized by self-criticism based on low self-esteem, as well as hypertrophied self-analysis with excessively high demands on oneself.

The main signs of pathology are heightened anxiety, suspiciousness, lack of self-confidence, indecisiveness, a sense of inferiority.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8]

Epidemiology

For the first time you can suspect the disease in childhood. However, the main patients who attend doctors with complaints similar to psychasthenia are young people from 18 to 35 years old.

According to statistics, extremely rarely patients seek first aid for psychasthenia after 40 years of age.

Most of the patients are men. Women suffer from psychasthenia 50% less often.

trusted-source[9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15]

Causes of the psychasthenia

Most of the cases of psychasthenia develop due to certain events that traumatize the human psyche. Of course, the presence of provoking factors is important for the appearance of a disorder:

  • intellectual (thinking) mindset;
  • introversion;
  • nervous exhaustion associated with prolonged and excessive mental stress or with systemic diseases.

trusted-source[16], [17], [18], [19]

Pathogenesis

In the formation of the disease, the underlying role belongs to predisposition. External factors only give impetus to the appearance of a disorder or exacerbate a pathology that has already arisen. Predisposition can be pawned in childhood and depends on the characteristics of education and some negative aspects lived in childhood.

The famous doctor Pavlov considered psychasthenia a result of general mental weakness with concomitant weakness of thinking. General mental weakness can be associated with inadequate subcortical activity, since pathology affects mainly people of an intellectual warehouse. Hence the predominance of the passive defensive reflex of increased caution is formed.

trusted-source[20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27]

Symptoms of the psychasthenia

Psychiatry is characterized, above all, by excessive suspiciousness, negative self-hypnosis and a patient's rich imagination. The behavior of a person, changes in his character - all give out the instability of the internal state. Such people are vulnerable, impressionable, sometimes shy. Despite the high demands on themselves, in life they are usually indecisive, lack confidence, often worry and worry about trifles.

The first signs of the disease - this is increasing self-doubt, a sense of hopelessness and hopelessness. Noticeably the general feeling of fear, which is connected, basically, with plans for the future, with any new beginnings and changes.

Externally, psychasthenia can be suspected by the presence of the following symptoms:

  • impossibility of making an independent decision;
  • the inclination to consult with all and for any reason;
  • excessive pedantry in everything;
  • constant skepticism.

The patient becomes slow, "slow." His movements can be slowed down.

Speech during psychasthenia is also slowed. The patient speaks with a pause, as if thinking and weighing every word. In addition to monotony, the patient's conversation can be characterized by excessive imagination: speech abounds with all kinds of speculation, fictions, untruthful conclusions.

Cognitive processes during psychasthenia are inhibited. A person feels within himself opportunities, but is afraid to implement them, because he does not see any positive. Often during psychasthenia, the normal perception of the real world is violated and self-perception is absent.

Memory during psychasthenia can worsen, physical and mental fatigue is formed, vegetative manifestations are unstable. Nevertheless, the patient is inclined to remember all the important dialogues and situations for him, which can be touched for a long time in memory, stopping at every detail.

Characteristic features of psychasthenic syndrome:

  • man is in agony due to his own thoughts; he tries as carefully as possible to think things over;
  • excessive suspiciousness and thoughtfulness often lead to problems in communication, as the patient several times can try to return to any conversation in which, in his opinion, he was misunderstood.

Externally, the psychasthenic gives the impression of a modest, shy and sensitive person, although his conclusions and even deeds may indeed be misunderstood.

Complications and consequences

Most often, psychasthenia develops into all kinds of obsessive states, somatoform disorders. Psychasthenics gradually abandon all initiatives, from new activities, and live either by the past or by an unreal, fictitious future.

Over time, the existence of psychasthenics is filled with anxiety, anxiety, fear, negative thinking, skepticism, mistrust. All this can be accompanied by the appearance of obsessive thoughts.

Interestingly, in patients with psychasthenia, sooner or later there are fears of mental disorders. They are frightened by deterioration of working capacity, constant fatigue. Indeed, neurotic problems often attach to psychasthenia, which significantly worsen the prognosis of the disease. The consequences of neurotic disorders can be alcoholism, drug addiction, prolonged depression, sexual disorders.

trusted-source[28], [29], [30], [31], [32], [33], [34], [35], [36]

Diagnostics of the psychasthenia

Diagnosis is primarily based on general information about the complaints of the patient and his environment. To clarify the diagnosis, the doctor can dwell on such questions:

  • when there were deviations;
  • which was the impetus for their appearance;
  • whether there are similar disorders among relatives.

Additional factors of the emergence of pathology can serve as excessive mental and physical stress.

To make the correct diagnosis, the doctor can prescribe certain tests. So, general studies of blood and urine are prescribed without fail, because their indicators can judge the state of the body as a whole, as well as suspect some hidden and chronic diseases. If such suspicions arise, the patient will inevitably receive a referral to the examination of the kidneys, metabolic processes, to determine the hormonal background in the body.

Instrumental diagnosis may be appropriate if the doctor has already determined the diagnosis, but he needs to clarify certain points. Among instrumental researches the following are most actual:

  • ECG - allows you to assess the work of the heart;
  • Ultrasound of the thyroid gland and abdominal organs - helps to identify chronic diseases and pathologies of the endocrine system, which can directly affect the occurrence of psychasthenia;
  • Ultrasound of cerebral vessels - dopplerography - indicates the presence of violations of cerebral circulation and oxygen starvation of tissues.

trusted-source[37], [38], [39]

Differential diagnosis

Differential diagnosis of psychasthenia is carried out with other personal manifestations that can accompany many mental illnesses:

  • schizophrenia;
  • atrophic brain processes;
  • neurasthenia.

Correctly to establish the diagnosis of psychasthenia is sometimes difficult even for an experienced professional psychiatrist. Therefore, it is very important to use for diagnostics the maximum number of possible methods and studies.

trusted-source[40], [41], [42], [43], [44], [45], [46]

Who to contact?

Treatment of the psychasthenia

Psychiatry in medicine does not have the status of a disease: it is only a small disturbance of the psyche. However, despite this, psychasthenia should be treated to prevent complications. Moreover, people-psychasthenics have growing problems in society, which greatly complicates their existence.

Correction of psychasthenic disorder is aimed at eliminating obsessive thoughts, conditions, fears and unreasonable anxiety.

Treatment consists of taking medications and applying psychotherapeutic methods. The doctor can prescribe the following medicines:

  • Tranquilizers:

Dosage

Side effects

Special instructions

Chlordiazepoxide

Dragee is taken inside from 0.005 to 0.01 g to 4 times a day. At the end of the course, the dose is gradually reduced.

There may be sleep disorders, vestibular disorders, decreased libido, "seasickness".

The drug is incompatible with ethyl alcohol.

Lorazepam

Usually, when psihastenii take 2 mg of the drug per day, divided into 3 admission. It is possible to administer 1 mg three times a day. The limiting daily dosage is 10 mg.

Perhaps the appearance of fatigue, muscle weakness, constipation, impaired appetite.

Lorazepam is canceled gradually, with a slow decrease in dosage. Otherwise, abstinence syndrome may occur.

  • Neuroleptics:

Dosage

Side effects

Special instructions

Propazin

Propazin is taken orally, with food, from 25 to 100 mg to 4 times a day.

During treatment, tremors in the limbs, dizziness, and sometimes convulsions may appear.

During treatment, you can not take alcohol, drive transport. Regular monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate.

Azaleptin

The drug is used from 50 to 200 mg of the drug up to 3 times a day, after eating.

During the reception, drowsiness, headaches, dryness in the oral cavity, palpitations may occur.

Azaleptin enhances the effect of alcohol, and also exacerbates alcohol intoxication, so the simultaneous use of the drug with alcohol is strictly contraindicated.

  • Antidepressants:

Dosage

Side effects

Special instructions

Befol

When psychasthenia taken internally, 30-50 mg twice a day.

Lowering blood pressure, heaviness and pain in the head.

Bethol is not used with a tendency to hypotension.

Pirazidol

Usually the drug is taken from 50 to 150 mg per day (in two divided doses). The treatment course can last up to 1 month.

During treatment, thirst, increased sweating, nausea, dizziness can occur.

Pyrazidol is contraindicated for the treatment of patients with hepatitis.

In addition to drugs, with psychasthenia or exhaustion of the nervous system, the body will need vitamins. In pharmacies, you can choose high-quality complex products that will provide the nervous system with all the necessary substances.

  • Vitabalans Multivit is prescribed for mental and emotional overloads. The preparation consists of vitamins of group B, vitamins A, E and ascorbic acid, supplemented with magnesium and calcium minerals. The listed components are often used for exhaustion and nervous overexcitation.
  • Milgamma is a vitamin remedy that regulates the psychoemotional state. The composition of the drug is represented by vitamins of group B, which are irreplaceable for pathologies of the nervous system.
  • Complivit is a general restorative complex vitamin preparation recommended for use with increased mental and physical loads.

To restore the nervous system as soon as possible during psychasthenia, it is recommended to follow the principles of healthy nutrition and additionally take special combination vitamin complexes. As a result of this approach, it is possible to improve the quality of life, improve adaptation processes, and prevent the development of complications.

Physiotherapeutic treatment is another method that helps to speed up the recovery of patients with psychasthenia. Physiotherapy consists of a number of completely safe and useful procedures that support basic treatment and even enhance the effect of certain medicines.

  • Electrostimulation is the effect of an electric current on a certain area of influence. This method helps to strengthen or weaken the processes that occur in the central nervous system.
  • Electrophoresis is used for deeper penetration of drugs into the layers of the skin. As a result of the impact of electrophoresis, the need for the amount of the drug is reduced, and the duration of its action is increased.
  • Electrosleep is used to slow the reaction of the nervous system. This provides a calming and anti-stress effect, which is especially necessary for patients suffering from chronic fatigue and mental overload.
  • Hydromassage and Charcot's douche are procedures based on the action of water, which is supplied under pressure. Water, as you know, relaxes and soothes a person, gives him strength and energy.

It will help stabilize the work of the nervous system during psychasthenia and folk therapy. For example, as an aid, you can use such recipes:

  • drink during the day a broth of dogrose with the addition of honey and lemon. It will calm the nervous system and strengthen the body;
  • regularly take an infusion of lemongrass or ginseng (if there are no contraindications - for example, hypertension);
  • take a bath with a decoction of pine needles, 20 minutes twice a week;
  • inhale essential oils of rose, lavender, mint or geranium.

It will not be superfluous to find treatment with herbs that, if properly applied, have an exceptionally positive effect on the human body.

  1. Take 2 tbsp. L. Oregano, pour 0.5 liters of boiling water, insist 60 minutes. Drink before meals three times a day for 100-150 ml. It is not recommended to take infusion during pregnancy.
  2. Take 2 tbsp. L. Valerian root, pour 0.5 liters of boiling water, infuse for 1 hour. Drink 100 ml three times a day as a medicine against overwork, sleep disorders, irritability.
  3. Take 2 tbsp. L. Ivan-tea, pour boiling water in the amount of 0.5 liters, insist at least 1 hour. Drink 100 ml 15-20 minutes before eating. Such a medicine will help with insomnia, headache and nervous exhaustion.
  4. Take 2 tbsp. L. Sweet potato, pour 400 ml of boiling water, insist, filter and drink twice a day. Infusion of clover soothes, relieves spasms, facilitates the perception of reality. Infusion can be combined with preparations of mint and lemon balm.

Many doctors are convinced that natural remedies, such as homeopathy, contribute to the elimination of nervous system disorders. Homeopathic remedies help smooth out a sharp change of mood, increase efficiency, solve problems with falling asleep, overcome moral and physical exhaustion.

Often when psychasthenia specialists resort to the appointment of homeopathic remedies brand Heel :

  • Valerianahel - a combined herbal homeopathic remedy, which is prescribed by mouth in an amount of 15 drops three times a day. Duration of admission - up to 4 weeks. In rare cases, the drug may trigger an allergy.
  • Nervocheel is a multicomponent drug that has been approved for use since 3 years of age. Tablets are taken 1 hour after a meal, 1 pc. Under the tongue. Duration of treatment - up to 3 weeks.
  • Ignacy Gommakord is a homeopathic preparation with sedative and spasmolytic effect. Take 10 drops of the drug three times a day, under the tongue. Side effects when taking the drug is not noticed.
  • Cerebrum Compositum is a homeopathic remedy that combines the properties of nootropic and psychotropic drugs, as well as antispasmodics. As a rule, the drug is administered intramuscularly for 1 ampoule 1-3 times a week. During the treatment, rashes on the body can sometimes appear, which go away without a trace after the drug has been discontinued.

Prevention

Prevention of psychasthenia should start from early childhood. A large role is played by such factors as the adaptation of the child in the team, physical education (especially team games), visits to various groups, sections and classes.

Also suitable are the so-called "useful" entertainment - travel, tours. The life of the child must be saturated and interesting. However, you should not allow excessive loads on the children's body, you can not force a kid to do anything against his will.

It is important to accustom all household members to the regime of the day, which must provide for time, both for work and leisure. You can not allow both excessive labor and idle pastime.

In addition, any person should beware of various injuries, including head injuries. It is known that many disorders of the nervous system, including psychasthenia, arise due to craniocerebral injuries of varying severity.

trusted-source[47], [48], [49], [50]

Forecast

Experts agree that it is impossible to completely get rid of psychasthenia. However, you can adjust the patient's behavior, improve his worldview.

Complex treatment often helps to bring the state of the psychasthenic to the level of a practically healthy person.

Much of the success of the cure depends on the patient himself, on his character and the desire for recovery. If the course of the pathology is protracted, and the patient himself is pessimistic, then it is not necessary to count on an absolutely favorable forecast.

Psychiatry is a rather complex condition, the subtleties of which have not yet been fully elucidated. Some experts call this disorder a disease, and others - a feature of nervous activity. Nevertheless, psychasthenia requires a medical and psychological correction: this will greatly facilitate a person's being in society and improve the quality of life.

trusted-source[51], [52]

It is important to know!

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