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Prevention of posture disorder in school-age children

 
, medical expert
Last reviewed: 19.10.2021
 
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Physical preparation and prevention of posture disorder is one of the most important and urgent problems of the state. The health of a nation is the guarantee of its prosperity, it is the decisive potential that ultimately determines the fate of any reforms. The potential of physical education lies in the fact that it affects not only the motor activity of a person, but also his moral, social and spiritual qualities. The content of the person's motor activity is his systematic, motivated activity aimed at his physical perfection, therefore it is considered as the main sphere of the formation of the physical culture of the individual.

In the process of physical improvement of a person, two interrelated systems of activities are formed: a pedagogical process aimed at developing the motor capabilities of man, and a system of organized activities that determine and regulate the development of physical education in the country. Many experts note the relationship between the organization and the methods of physical education and the health of children and youth.

At school age, the goal of physical education is specified by the following health goals:

  • prevention of posture disorder;
  • harmonious development of all physical qualities taking into account sensitive periods;
  • achieving the proper level of physical condition, ensuring a high level of physical health.

As noted by Krutsevich (2000-2002), the modern organization of the process of physical education of children and adolescents in Ukraine is not manageable, because it does not reach the main goal - the high level of physical health of the younger generation.

Prevention of violation of posture in children of school age is impossible without a properly organized, managed physical education process.

Management in physical education is understood as the process of a purposeful, controlled and regulated change in the motor abilities of a person. The levels of health, physical efficiency and social activity of the population are the criteria for the effectiveness of this process.

The main component of physical education is physical exercise.

Physical education as a process of purposeful change in the forms and functions of the body by specific and non-specific means is a combination of organizational and pedagogical tools aimed at improving the physical condition of a person. In the field of physical education, ideas and principles of a systematic approach are spreading ever wider.

Based on the theoretical positions of the system approach in the study of a holistic object, it is necessary to pay attention to those characteristics that characterize the given object as a whole. Within the framework of a single system, they are viewed as interrelated parts of the whole. Therefore, the system is viewed as a set of interacting components, connections and relationships, united by unity of purpose. Achieving the goal is the main task of management.

In the field of physical culture, management is carried out in several ways:

  • management of social systems;
  • management of biological systems;
  • management of technological systems.

These directions have their goal and the corresponding basic patterns: social, biological and technological. In pedagogy management is possible if:

  • specific management objective;
  • object and controls;
  • the ability of a managed object to transition from one state to another;
  • the capabilities of the managed object to create control actions;
  • the ability of the managing entity to perceive these impacts;
  • the choice of a managerial solution from a set or set of solutions;
  • certain material management resources;
  • information about the current state of the control object;
  • opportunities to assess the quality of management, etc.

When choosing the management actions and drawing up physical fitness programs, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the use of means, methods and forms of organization of studies in different age periods associated with the patterns of development in ontogeny and the individual characteristics of the children's organism. They can vary in a range of one age period and depend on hereditary factors, the environmental conditions in which the child is raised, the typological properties of the nervous system, the level of the functional state, and also affect the biological age that may not correspond to the chronological age.

Today, we can identify a number of factors that affect the formation of proper posture.

The involvement of school-age children in physical exercise and sports depends primarily on the environment - the state, society, school, parents, friends and their relationship to physical education and sport. Socio-economic conditions and, first of all, the living standard of the population, housing conditions, the availability of sport bases, personnel, distribution of free time in the country and in the area affect the attitude of others and society towards this problem, and the formation of an individual approach to physical education. An important role is played by the system existing in the country

  • Diseases
  • Physical activity
  • Steadodynamic mode
  • Violations of hygiene of study and work
  • Socio-economic
  • The quality of the functioning of social systems that ensure the normal development of the child
  • Ecology
  • Food
  • Heredity
  • Development of the musculoskeletal system
  • Ontogenesis of motility in certain age periods
  • Means of objective, operational and integral diagnosis of the functional state of posture
  • Ergonomic requirements for children's furniture, clothing and footwear
  • Forces acting on the person and considered in relation to his body (external and internal) education, the place and role of physical education and sport in this system, the availability of modern programs and their implementation by qualified teachers of physical education.

The level of motor activity in school age is largely determined by the age-related need for it (kinesifilia), but by the organization of physical education in school, by involving children in organized and independent studies during extra-curricular time.

Comprehensive prevention of posture disorder adopted in Ukraine, in addition to two compulsory lessons per week, provides additional and optional exercises and exercise in the regime of the day. Children should exercise daily for about two hours. But even under the most favorable conditions in practice, the general education school is not able to provide the necessary volume of motor activity, therefore, in fact, specially organized motor activity is limited to 3-4 hours per week for the bulk of schoolchildren, which is 30% of the hygienic norm.

Children attending the sports school are engaged in trainings from 8 to 24-28 hours a week, which is several times higher than the weekly load of those engaged in general education schools.

Early sports specialization, creating hyperkinesia (excessive motor activity), has recently become common in sports. A number of authors have shown that this results in a specific complex of functional disorders and clinical changes, referred to as hyperkinesia. This condition is accompanied by dangerous changes from the side of the central nervous system and neuroregulatory apparatus of children. There is a depletion of the sympathoadrenal system, a protein deficit and a decrease in the body's immunity.

With the generality of the theoretical provisions on the criteria for the age norms of the motor activity of children and adolescents, different authors give different indicators characterizing these norms. Sukharev (1982) with the help of a pedometer developed hygienic standards of daily locomotion for children and adolescents.

Silla (1984) proposes to normalize motor activity by activity.

The criteria provided by the authors can be used as a guide for assessing the motor activity in a particular age group of children in comparison with living conditions, training, and the organization of the process of physical education. However, it is very difficult to use them to determine the individual rate. The individual norm of motor activity should proceed from its expediency and utility for health. To do this, you need to focus on indicators that characterize the health of children. It is important to know for what purpose and what level of physical state it is necessary to achieve.

As evidenced by the data of many researchers, anthropogenic environmental factors affect the phenotypic adaptation of the human body. Determining the degree of influence of a particular factor is a difficult task, but the methods used in population genetics, where groups are studied according to the existing phenotype and characteristic features of the habitat, allow to reveal the influence of the leading factors and the direction of their action, which is extremely important for correcting the process of physical education in the system management.

Diet and nutrition are of great importance for maintaining good health of school-age children. A healthy diet depends not only on each individual nutrient, but also on the overall structure of nutrition. The main principle of nutrition is the consumption of a variety of food products. This is the basis for structuring the diet in accordance with the main four food groups.

If a child falls into unfavorable conditions (illness, malnutrition, etc.) for some reason, then the pace of motor development slows him down. However, after eliminating these negative influences, if they were not excessive, its motor capabilities develop at an accelerated rate.

Preventive maintenance of a disturbance of a posture at children of school age is based on the organization static dynamic a mode which assumes observance of some conditions.

The child must daily practice health or special gymnastics. The minimum duration of training is 20 minutes, the optimal one is 40 minutes. A great influence on the working posture of children is provided by the duration of the classes. Senior students need to take breaks every 40-45 minutes, and first-graders - after 30-35 minutes.

Children's furniture is selected in accordance with ergonomic requirements:

  • the height of the table should be such that the distance from the eyes of the sitting child to the surface of the table was about 30 cm. This can be easily verified by a simple test: if you put your hand on the elbow, then the middle finger should reach the angle of the eye;
  • with the vertical position of the head, the axis of serenity is directed downward from the horizontal at an angle of about 15 °. The boundaries of the optimal visibility range from the horizontal down to the angle of about 30 °;
  • in the horizontal plane, the optimum viewing angle is ± 15 °; the turn of the head to the side increases the boundaries of the useful zone to ± 60 °; with a simultaneous rotation of the head and eyes, the visibility zone expands to ± 95 °;
  • The height of the chairs (the distance between the seat surface and the floor) should correspond to the anthropometric dimensions of the children's body. For schoolchildren, the height of the chairs should correspond to one third of their growth, i. To be 400-600 mm;
  • The maximum depth of chairs should be 1/3 of the anatomical length of the hips (with a minimum value of 350 mm).

None of the elements of the chairs does not affect so much on the pressure in the intervertebral discs, as the design of the back:

  • the exact height of the back of the backrest is not significant unless it is at the level of the lumbar region;
  • additional support at the level of the blades, created by bending the back of the chair, leads to an increase in the internal disk pressure and can not be recommended;
  • the total inclination of the backrest reduces the internal disk pressure to a very small extent or does not at all reduce it;
  • at a depth of the back of the backrest 40 mm, the natural lumbar lordosis persists; the increase of the back protrusion up to 50 mm results in a decrease in the internal disk pressure;
  • the slope of the working surface, depending on the type of work, can vary from 0 ° and almost to 90 °. Experiments with reading and writing on working surfaces that had a slope of 0, 12, 24 ° showed that at these angles the posture was more correct, muscle activity was less, and fatigue and discomfort in the back area were also reduced. In this regard, the recommended angle of inclination of the working surface is 10-20 °;
  • The width of the working surface should not be less than the working space in the horizontal plane. For writing, the width of the working surface is equal to 500 mm (380-working area and the rest-for papers and other materials); The 100 mm plane can be horizontal while the rest is inclined.

To ensure that the working posture at the time of writing is optimal, one should adhere to a number of rules:

  • The angle between the plane of the footrest and the longitudinal axis should be about 80 °;
  • hips on the chair are located horizontally, with the angle in the knee joint is about 80 °;
  • the inclination of the seatback is 100-105 °;
  • The forearm is located horizontally at the level of the working surface.

With this working position, the pressure on the intervertebral discs is relatively small and evenly distributed across the front and back of the disc. During work, you should constantly struggle with incorrect poses. The oblique position of the shoulder girdle when writing (when the left arm is stitched from the table) or the oblique position of the pelvis (when the child is sitting with the foot placed under the buttock) or the habit of standing with the support of the same leg, bending the other in the knee. These and other vicious postures lead to violations of posture.

A child with defects in his posture should be freed from any additional occupations related to prolonged sitting or asymmetric static posture. It is not recommended to carry the briefcase in the same hand, and in the elementary school it is better to buy a knapsack for the child. After school, the child must lie for 1 - 1.5 hours, in order to normalize the tone of the muscles of the back and relieve the pillar. The child's bed should be semi-rigid, even, stable, the pillow - not high, better orthopedic.

Clothing and footwear are of no small importance for the formation of proper posture for children. Clothing, belts and elastic bands should not constrain, impede breathing and circulation. The same requirements apply to shoes. Tight shoes disrupt the formation of the arch of the foot, which leads to flat feet. In addition, when wearing tight shoes, the appearance of ingrown nails, scuffs may occur. All this makes the child's gait unsteady, tense, and his posture is disorderly.

Without a properly constructed regime and the implementation of the above hygienic recommendations listed above, any medical measures and efforts will be ineffective. All these, at first glance, insignificant details are of great importance for preventing violations of the posture of schoolchildren.

In addition, in the process of forming the posture, it is necessary to adhere to a number of general rules:

  • take into account the age-related features of the formation and development of ODA on the basis of ossification of the human skeleton;
  • to take into account the sensitive periods of development of physical qualities of a person in ontogenesis;
  • harmoniously develop the strength of muscles;
  • use adequate methods and techniques to consistently form the posture and correct posture, etc.

Prevention of violation of the posture of children is based, first of all, on a uniform and harmonious physical development, the ability to coordinate Movements, to manage them.

Kogo-muscular system most demonstratively reflects the general signs of age development. Changes in the parameters of bone and muscle tissue are strikingly evident both in the progressive growth of the organism and in involution.

The younger school age is characterized by a relatively uniform development of the ODA, but the growth rate of its individual dimensional features is different. Thus, the length of the body increases in this period to a greater extent than its mass. There are changes in the proportions of the body: the ratio of the circumference of the chest to the length of the body changes, legs become relatively longer. Although in the total size of the body the difference between boys and girls is still insignificant, the chest circumference and the ZHEL in girls are less.

The younger schoolchildren continue to ossify the skeleton, in particular, the ossification of the phalanx of the fingers is completed. The joints of children of this age are very mobile, the ligamentous apparatus is elastic, the skeleton contains a large amount of cartilaginous tissue. At the same time, the spinal column bends are gradually fixed: cervical and thoracic to 7 years, lumbar - to 12 To 8-9 years, the spinal column retains great mobility.

Muscles of children of primary school age have fine fibers, contain a small amount of protein and fat. In this case, the large muscles of the limbs are more developed than the small ones. The innervated muscle apparatus achieves a rather high development. In those muscles that are under heavy load, the intensity of changes in blood supply and innervation is more pronounced.

The younger school age is the most crucial period in the formation of the motor coordination of the child. At this age the foundations of the culture of movements are laid, new, previously unknown exercises and actions, physical culture knowledge are successfully mastered.

Changes in the mode of life associated with the start of schooling, as well as the unfinished still process of formation of the ODA, necessitate caution in dosing the physical loads of younger schoolchildren. Preventive maintenance of a disturbance of a posture consists in restriction of application of power exercises, training loads on endurance and time of carrying out of separate employment.

During this period, there is the formation of individual interests and motivations for exercise.

Adolescence is the period of maximum growth rates of the entire human body and its individual bio-links. It is characterized by the intensification of oxidative processes, the intensification of the process of puberty. Intensive growth and increase in all body sizes were called the second growth jump, or the second "stretch".

During this period, the rhythm of development of the body in girls and boys, there are significant differences. Thus, in boys, the maximum growth rate of the body in length is observed at 13-14 years, and in girls - at 11-12. During this period the proportions of the body change rapidly, approaching the parameters characteristic for an adult.

In adolescents, long tubular bones of extremities and vertebrae grow strongly. At the same time, bones grow mainly in length, but their width is insignificant in width. At this age, the ossification of the wrist and metacarpal bones ends, while in the intervertebral discs ossification zones only appear. The spinal column of the adolescent is still very mobile.

In adolescence, the muscular system develops quite rapidly, which is especially pronounced in the development of muscles, tendons, joint-ligament apparatus and tissue differentiation. The general muscle mass sharply increases, its acceleration is especially noticeable in boys aged 13-14 and girls at 11-12. The development of the innervational apparatus of muscles in adolescence is mostly complete.

The average school age coincides with the period of completion of biological maturation of the organism. At this time, the motor personality that is inherent in an adult man is finally formed. For teenagers, the impairment of motor coordination is characterized by intensive development of speed and speed-strength qualities.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7]

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