Pills for sleep
Tablets for sleep nowadays, alas, have become an honorable place in the home medicine kits of almost every family. Popularization of sleeping pills is facilitated by the high-speed rhythms of modern life, the desire and need of a person to catch up as much as possible, as well as the successes of the pharmaceutical industry.
Physical, mental, emotional and emotional overloads of the body and constant stresses have an extremely negative effect on the nervous system, provoke malfunctions in the alternation of biological rhythms, lead to partial or complete absence of sleep.
Indications of the tablets for sleep
Help the body to rest and sleep, give him a full rest can various means, including sleeping pills. Refer to them if there are such indications for use:
- disturbances in the process of sleep;
- poor falling asleep and repeated awakening;
- tension, anxious thoughts;
- irritability, increased excitability;
- failure of daily biorhythms;
- constant stress;
- psychosomatic diseases;
- psychopathological diseases with alcoholism;
- vegetative disorders;
- memory impairment;
- depressed mood;
- hormonal disorders;
- age changes.
The names of tablets from sleep contain information about their formulations and the origin of the components. Depending on the composition and effects on the body, tablets from sleep are stored in different ways in pharmacies and released to patients.
Without prescriptions they let go:
- hypnotics on a plant basis - valerian, motherwort, persen, dormiplant, new passit, melaxen;
- blockers of histamine receptors and ethanolamines - donormyl, dimedrol, doxylamine, valokordin-doxylamine.
The drugs are effective for episodic insomnia, short-term sleep disorders.
According to the recipes released:
- barbiturates: phenobarbital;
- benzodiazepines: phenazepam, diazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, norepam, tazepam, relanium, flunitrazepam, lorazepam;
- nonbenzodiazepines: zopiclone, zolpidem, zaleplon.
"Sleep Formula" is a biologically active supplement for improving sleep. Phytocomplex makes it stronger and lasting, further enriches the body with vitamins B and magnesium.
Tablets in a shell of 0.5 g contain magnesium, extracts motherwort, hops, hawthorn, vitamin B complex.
- Magnesium is an "element of tranquility": it takes part in muscle and nervous activity, transmits impulses, activates vitamins and enzymatic processes.
- Thanks to phyto-components, sleeping tablets act as a sedative and cardiotonic agent, normalize the functions of the nervous system.
- Vitamins are indispensable in the processes of nervous activity, they are involved in the construction of neuronal envelopes and the transfer of impulses. In the complex have a more effective, including anti-stress, effects.
Tablets donormil (synonym - doxylamine) are indicated for insomnia and other problems with sleep. The drug has sedative and hypnotic properties, so it speeds up the process of falling asleep, continues the period and improves the quality of sleep. Valid for a period of time sufficient for the rash.
Donormil is produced in two types of tablets: with a shell and effervescent, which must be dissolved in water before use. Apply 0.5 or a whole tablet a quarter of an hour before you go to bed. If the problem persists after a few days of admission, you should consult your doctor to change the daily dose or apply a different treatment.
Sleep pills can cause drowsiness during wakefulness, dry mouth, constipation, urine retention. They can not be administered to children younger than 15 years old, breastfeeding mothers (pregnant - with caution); contraindications are also:
- individual intolerance of ingredients,
- hyperplasia and prostate adenoma,
Donormil is incompatible with alcohol. When using the drug is not recommended to manage complex mechanisms (due to a reduced response).
In pharmacies, the drug is dispensed by prescription. Overdose causes severe symptoms, up to seizures and epileptiform seizures, which require qualified treatment.
Melaxen is considered effective and safe sleeping pills, so in pharmacies it is sold without prescriptions. It is an effective synthetic analogue of the natural hormone. Synonyms are metaton, melatonin, melapur.
The drug normalizes sleep, especially with primary insomnia in elderly patients, so it is recommended to people after 55 years old, suffering from insomnia with a violation of sleep quality. Melaxen is useful for insomnia associated with shift work regime, flights to different time zones, in stressful situations. Side effects are rare (in particular, allergies).
The positive properties of melaxen:
- not addictive;
- does not break memory;
- does not cause drowsiness during the day;
- Does not disturb the structure of sleep;
- does not exacerbate the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
Contraindications to the use of melaxen:
- hypersensitivity to components,
- violations of the functional capacity of the liver,
- autoimmune pathologies,
- work that requires quick reaction and concentration,
- pregnancy and lactation.
An overestimated dose of the drug causes drowsiness, dizziness, impaired coordination of movements. Treatment is not required, after 12 hours the substance is excreted from the body.
Melatonin is a synthetic substance created as an analogue of the natural hormone of the epiphysis. It is a powerful antioxidant, protects against the formation of free radicals that provoke aging and cancer diseases.
The substance is also called the sleep hormone. It is manufactured in the form of sleeping tablets intended for internal reception.
Melatonin has such effects:
- sleeping pills,
Melatonin regulates the circadian rhythm of the body, ensures timely falling asleep, a good sleep and a normal awakening.
Melatonin is useful in the violation of temporary adaptations with the change of time zones, improves state of health after sleep, reduces reactions to stress.
Dosage and frequency of reception are set according to the patient's specific indications, usually once a day, before bedtime. Take the pill for sleep follows whole, with plenty of water.
The positive quality of melatonin is that it does not cause addiction and withdrawal symptoms, it does not have serious side effects. Due to this, it is allowed to dispense without prescriptions. However, some contraindications to use still exist, for example:
- autoimmune and allergic diseases,
- chronic kidney failure,
Melatonin should not be given to children under 12 years of age, pregnant or nursing mothers, people working with machinery or other mechanisms requiring special attention.
Melanin is a natural pigment, the amount of which in the body causes the intensity of the color of the skin, hair, six. With a lack of substance, a pathology such as albinism is observed.
Melanin is constantly synthesized in the epidermis. Under the influence of ultraviolet rays, the process is activated and leads to the formation of a tan - protecting the skin from excessive ultraviolet irradiation.
Pigment produce special cells - melanocytes. With their shortage, skin protection requires the introduction of melanin from the outside. For this, you also need melanin in tablets.
Melanin tablets are used for cosmetic and therapeutic purposes.
- In a cosmetic sense, melanin is used to form a tan. The basis of the tablets is dihydroxyacetone, which stimulates the production of melanin in the skin.
- As a remedy apply with reduced pigmentation and skin cancer. The big positive of such protection is that the tablets, unlike ultraviolet, do not cause burns on the skin.
Melanin tablets are also produced on the basis of biologically active substances. They also stimulate the production of melanin.
It is also known that melanin tablets not only contribute to tanning without a tanning salon, but also have additional beneficial properties. For example, they stimulate the libido of both sexes and increase the burning of excess fats.
Tablets "Calm sleep" Geron-vit are developed taking into account the changes occurring in the aging organism. In the composition of tablets for sleep - a complex of plant ingredients, vitamins, minerals. Motherwort, cyanosis, melissa, hawthorn, sweet clover, St. John's wort, eleutherococcus, melatonin, biotin, vitamins C, B - a combination of these substances facilitates the symptoms of menopause, depression, memory, sleep, attention, physical strength.
"Calm sleep" is recommended for the prevention of depressed moods, support of the body under stresses, in particular, with such pathologies:
- neuroses from stress;
- sleep disorders;
- chronic fatigue;
- emotional disorders;
- to improve the condition of people permanently living in large cities.
According to research of scientists, the combination of medicinal plants with minerals and vitamins favorably affects the functions of the elderly organism: the complex preserves and protects nerve cells, maintains vivacity and cheerfulness, prevents memory impairment, Alzheimer's disease and similar diseases.
The duration of the treatment and prophylaxis course and the daily dose is determined by the doctor.
The hormone of sleep is called melatonin. He regulates sleep - wakefulness, heals insomnia, improves mental and emotional state, eliminates stress, normalizes pressure, slows down the aging process, prolongs life, increases immunity.
Melatonin relieves some types of headache, has antioxidant and antitumor properties. Useful for people who are forced on a journey to change time zones.
It is possible to increase the level of the hormone naturally. To do this, you need to lie down no later than midnight, sleep in a dark room and enough time. After all, the substance in the body is formed at night, from midnight to four hours.
If there is a lack of its own substance, it should be taken additionally, in the form of tablets for sleeping. The use of tablets
- improves falling asleep,
- relieves stress,
- slows down aging,
- increases the protective forces,
- regulates the pressure and activity of the brain,
- reduces the amount of cholesterol,
- relieves pain in the head.
The undesirable effects of using the sleep hormone are not fixed. In the risk group, as usual, pregnant women, nursing mothers, patients with severe illnesses. However, to take sleeping pills without consulting a doctor should not be to other people.
Phenazepam is a powerful tranquilizer. It also has a muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant, hypnotic effect.
Tablets for sleep are prescribed:
- at disturbances of nervous and mental activity - with symptoms of anxiety, fear, irritability, mental imbalance;
- for overcoming obsessive conditions, phobias, hypochondria, psychoses, panic reactions;
- for withdrawal of alcohol withdrawal;
- As a hypnotic in surgical procedures.
The substance can provoke unwanted reactions: ataxia, dizziness, drowsiness, muscle weakness. Contraindicated in patients with severe myasthenia gravis, functional changes in the liver and kidneys, pregnant women.
With caution recommend the use of phenazepam elderly, weakened people. Special caution is needed when treating people with severe forms of depression: the drug can be used by them for suicide.
Long-term use of phenazepam in large quantities causes a pharmacological dependence.
The drug "Healthy Sleep" is released as round blue tablets in a shell containing the active substance zolpidem tartrate. They are administered orally as a sleeping pill for various sleep disorders:
Sleep pills "Healthy sleep" can cause side effects. They are manifested by unpleasant symptoms: nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, memory impairment, tremor, depression, rash on the skin. A similar picture provokes an overdose of the drug.
The drug is contraindicated in hypersensitivity, the presence of myasthenia gravis, apnea, liver disorders, pulmonary insufficiency. It can not be administered to pregnant women in the first trimester, children under 15 years of age. Special caution is required when prescribing to lactating and pregnant women, patients with liver problems, prone to depression, alcoholics.
When using the "Healthy Sleep" tablets, you can not drive or control complex machinery.
The herbal sedative "Doctor's Dream" is released in capsules. Hoods medicinal plants in its composition have a sedative, hypnotic, antispasmodic, anti-stress, adaptogenic properties. Does not provoke addiction.
Indication for the use of "Doctor's Dream":
- sleep disorders,
- obsessive thoughts,
- nervous excitement,
"Doctor sleep" is contraindicated for children under 12 years and people who are hypersensitive to individual components.
Side effects are manifested in the form of allergic reactions, gastric disorders, feelings of fatigue. Overdose is undesirable, but it does not pose a danger: the symptoms disappear within 24 hours after stopping the medication.
Admission of the drug adversely affects the ability to drive a car or work with complex equipment. It is also not recommended after watching capsules to watch TV, listen to the radio, other sources of information.
The effect of capsules on the female body during pregnancy and lactation has not been studied. Only the doctor decides on the appointment of the drug to such patients.
Tablets for sleep sonex in the shell contain the active component zopiclone. Differ from other tablets, a strip on one side.
Apply the drug for severe sleep disorders. Sonex helps to fall asleep, soothes, relaxes, has an anticonvulsant effect. The dosage of the medicine is determined by the doctor, prescribing the prescription.
- individual sensitivity,
- respiratory insufficiency,
- myasthenia gravis,
- difficult problems with the liver,
- bouts of a night apnea,
- children, adolescents under 18,
- pregnancy and lactation.
Undesirable effects are manifested in the form of visual disturbances, the activity of the nervous, respiratory, musculoskeletal, metabolic processes.
Do not recommend using the drug when doing work that requires concentration. With long-term use of sonex, its hypnotic effect is reduced, and pharmacological dependence also develops.
The company Evalar produces the drug "Formula of Sleep" - a completely natural remedy, related to dietary supplements. Sleeping pills are intended to improve sleep, have a restorative, mild relaxing and soothing effect.
"Sleep Formula" is issued in three forms:
- sleeping pills,
- colloidal solution,
- baby syrup.
The drug has a beneficial effect on the nervous system, relieves stress, promotes sleep, deep and prolonged sleep thanks to such substances:
- motherwort (calms);
- hops (promotes sleep);
- eshcholcia (hypnotics);
- vitamins B1, B6, B12 (provide adequate work of the nervous system);
- magnesium (activates vitamins B, soothes).
Plant components, in addition to sleeping pills, have a positive effect on the heart: they increase myocardial contraction, reduce its excitability, and eliminate arrhythmia. To achieve the effect, you need to take a full course of treatment.
"Sleep Formula" is contraindicated for people with hypersensitivity to the ingredients of the drug, as well as pregnant women and nursing mothers.
Sleeping tablets contain active ingredient doxylamine from the group of ethanolamines. Used in the therapy of sleep pathologies (a synonym for donormyl).
The drug has sedative, hypnotics, antihistamine properties. It facilitates falling asleep, improves the quality of sleep, does not affect its phases. It is recommended to apply for 15 - 30 minutes before going to bed. The drug effect lasts not less than seven hours.
Sonmil is usually well tolerated by patients, if mild drowsiness, dizziness, impaired coordination of movements are noted. Possible dry mouth, micturition and stool.
Contraindications to the use of:
- angle-closure glaucoma,
- prostate problems,
Do not use sonil in pediatrics, for the treatment of insomnia in pregnant and lactating women. Special care is needed when managing technical means.
Overdose of tablets is fraught with daytime drowsiness, anxiety, tremor, flushing, fever. In more complex cases, convulsions and coma are possible. Treatment of intoxication is symptomatic.
Tablets that normalize sleep
Problems with sleep can overtake a person at any age, starting with a child. During life, each person is associated with a variety of adverse situations that adversely affect sleep. Age changes in the body tend to aggravate insomnia.
Pharmacists offer pills that normalize sleep, for every age category.
- For children: Persen, dormiplant, new passit.
Children should not prescribe medications for sleep at all. Their use is allowed only in exceptional cases, with serious indications (and not earlier than with three years).
- For adults: new passit, persen, motherwort, afobazol, melatonin, rosere, zopiclone, phenibut, imovan.
Synthetic and combined drugs should be consumed only at night, as they contribute to a deep and prolonged sleep. And in the morning it is not recommended to get behind the wheel of the car or perform other complex manipulations.
- For the elderly: zopiclone, zolpidem.
This category of patients should choose a pill for sleep, taking into account a particular disease. Transient insomnia is treated with herbal remedies, expressed by drugs that leave the body for several hours.
Zopiclone and zolpidem are considered universal drugs, as they help to fall asleep easily and provide a sleep similar to the natural one. Older people tolerate these medicines fairly well, without feeling lethargic and daytime sleepiness.
Herbal Sleep Pills
Pharmaceutical drugs for sleep differ in composition, impact on the human body and, of course, cost. The most delicate products are based on herbal ingredients. These are phytocomplexes and bioadditives.
Tablets from a dream on grasses:
Normalizes sleep, improves cheerfulness and mood, relieves nervousness and unfounded anxiety. Take a course lasting from two to several weeks.
Contains herbs and vitamins B, used to prevent and treat partial absence of sleep.
A complex of amino acids and peptides, relieves stress and insomnia. At the same time it improves blood circulation of the brain, working capacity. Expensive, but quite harmless drug.
A multivitamin in the formulation contains, among other things, the extraction of ginkgo biloba. Supports the body with psycho-emotional overload, enriches the body with useful substances. It is recommended for insomnia, typical for high-level managers.
To vegetative tablets for a dream concern also novo-passit, afobazol, persen, pustyrnik in tablets.
Valerian for sleeping
Valerian is a famous medicinal plant. On the basis of rhizomes, plants produce tinctures; dry, thick, oily extracts; decoctions and infusions; briquettes; powder; filter packets. All dosage forms with regular administration have a sleeping, sedative, spasmolytic effect on the patient.
Valerian for sleeping in tablets with a shell is created on the basis of a dry plant extract. Valerian is not suitable for removing the symptoms of acute arousal and insomnia, because the sedative effect is manifested gradually, with systematic use (from two weeks to a month).
Tablets contain a different amount of active substance:
- "Valerian-Belmed" - 200 mg of powdered rhizomes;
- "Valerian Fort" - 150 mg of dense extract;
- "Valerian extract" - 20 mg and
- "Valerian" (Bulgaria) - 3 mg of dry extract.
The dosage depends on these parameters. Valerian is normally tolerated by patients, so overdose cases are rarely recorded. However, prolonged use can cause undesirable consequences.
Valerian is also a part of the combined preparations useful for insomnia, agitation, anxiety, neurotic states. Among the popular herbal remedies are Persen and sanason, camphor-valerian and lily-of-the-valley valerian drops, herbal preparations.
Tablets for sleeping on the plane
For sleep in the plane, drugs with adaptogenic properties are used that can normalize the disturbed biological rhythms. The most popular sleeping tablets on the plane are melaxen and its analogues: zircalene, melaxen balance.
The active ingredient, melatonin, is an artificially synthesized analogue of the hormone of the epiphysis. Regulates daily processes, maintains a quality sleep and good mood in the morning, does not cause a sense of lethargy. Even dreams when taking melaxen become brighter and more emotional.
An important property of melaxen and its analogues is an increase in the adaptive capacity of the organism with a rapid change in time zones. This is a real test that a person experiences during long flights.
Preparations of melaxen stimulate immunity and reduce stress reactions, and this, in turn, positively affects the general condition of the body, the mood and performance of a person.
- When taking melaxen as tablets for sleeping on a plane, it is recommended a day before the flight and a few days after taking 1 pc. For 30 to 40 minutes before bedtime (no more than two tablets per day).
Contraindications: pregnancy and lactation, kidney disease, allergies, tumors, epilepsy, diabetes mellitus. Melaxen refers to OTC medicines.
Most sleep tablets are metabolized in the liver (donormil, melaxen, sonex), and their metabolites are excreted in the urine through the kidneys (partially through the intestine).
A small portion leaves the body in an unchanged form (for example, soneks - 5%).
More information about pharmacokinetics can be found in the instructions for individual products.
Use of the tablets for sleep during pregnancy
Insomnia is a constant companion in pregnancy. In the early stages, it is associated with such changes:
- hormonal changes in the body,
- emotional instability,
- frequent urination,
- increased nervousness (in particular, with an unwanted pregnancy).
In the second trimester, sleep usually improves, but after the 32nd week, insomnia again returns. Causes are the pressure of the enlarged uterus on internal organs, including the bladder, as well as a feeling of heartburn. Sometimes there are several reasons, although even one is enough to suffer sleeplessness at night, and in the afternoon - from drowsiness.
The use of tablets for sleeping during pregnancy, as well as other medications, is not recommended by doctors. Even those who are considered "harmless." Especially when pregnancy is unacceptable self-treatment.
Alternative drugs can solve the problem, but without consulting a doctor, they are also prohibited from using them. Sometimes for overcoming insomnia, simple recipes such as milk with honey, tincture of oregano and valerian are enough.
An important role for the normalization of sleep during pregnancy is the correct regime of the day and nutrition of a woman, a calm environment in the home, support of relatives and a friendly attitude to her of all other people. As a rule, after a successful resolution of the burden, the sleep of the woman in childbirth comes to normal without medication.
Contraindications to the use of tablets for sleep:
- individual intolerance,
- children and young age,
- diseases (chronic obstruction and other lung diseases, severe muscle weakness, tumors, diabetes, etc.).
In addition to general, individual drugs have their contraindications. They must be taken into account when assigning to a particular patient.
Side effects of the tablets for sleep
Many pills for sleep are dangerous side effects. The manufacturer warns about this in the instructions, which should be read by both the doctor and the patient.
For example, phenazepam negatively affects the nervous system, the organs of blood and digestion, kidneys. At reception allergy and local reactions are possible. With a reduction in the dose or withdrawal of the drug there is a "cancellation" syndrome.
Melatonin in 4-6 hours slows down the coordination, rapidity of mental and physical reactions, provokes discomfort in the stomach, a feeling of heaviness in the head, depression.
Dosing and administration
Sleep tablets are for oral use. Usually they are recommended to be swallowed whole and washed down with water. Doses and duration of treatment depend on the diagnosis, the patient's condition, and other factors.
For example, for phenazepam outside the hospital, adults are prescribed 2 to 3 times a day, 0.25 to 0.5 mg per day. In hospital conditions, the dose can be increased to 3 - 5 mg. In epilepsy, 2 to 10 mg per day is used. When cupping alcohol withdrawal the maximum daily dose does not exceed 0.01 g.
Usually, sleeping pills are taken before going to bed, one or two pieces at a time.
Overdose of tablets for sleep leads to undesirable consequences of varying severity - from drowsiness, which occurs after withdrawal, - to convulsions and coma that require urgent medical attention.
For example, exceeding the dose of donormyl causes feelings of anxiety, daytime drowsiness, tremors, flushing of the skin, fever, convulsions and even coma.
An overdose of phenazepam induces drowsiness, decreased reflexes and consciousness, bradycardia, shortness of breath, decreased pressure, to whom.
In order to avoid risks, a physician should be professionally qualified to treat, and the patient should be responsive to his health and the advice of a physician.
Interactions with other drugs
Side effects of donor increased with the simultaneous intake of M-holinoblokatorov. The combination with other soothing causes potentiation of the depressing effect on the central nervous system.
Alcohol reduces the effectiveness of melaxen. Nicotine reduces plasma concentrations of the active substance.
Phenazepam enhances the effect when combined with antipsychotic, antiepileptic, hypnotic and other similar drugs. Increases the concentration of imipramine in the blood. In combination with clozapine, respiratory depression is noted.
Melatonin is not combined with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and CNS depressant drugs, beta-blockers.
Mechanisms of interaction with other drugs are described in detail in the instructions for sleep pills, and a competent doctor necessarily takes this factor into account. Some media are not enough.
Undoubtedly one: none of the drugs are not combined with the reception of alcoholic beverages and smoking.
Tablets for sleep are recommended to store at room temperature (up to 25 degrees), in a cool dry place, protected from children and sunlight. For some drugs in pharmacies create special storage conditions, for example, fenazepam stored in the list of B.
The temperature range for storing melaxen is 10 - 30 degrees, it must be stored and transported in the original packaging.
It is forbidden to take overdue sleeping pills - to avoid allergies or other harm.
Tablets for sleep without prescriptions
Tablets for sleep without prescriptions can be divided into several groups.
- Based on herbs:
- new passit,
The tablets contain extracts: valerian - root, motherwort - grass.
The dormiplant consists of a dry extract of valerian root and lemon balm leaves.
Persen, in addition to these components, contains peppermint leaves, and the new passit is a whole bouquet: valerian, lemon balm, hops, passionflower, St. John's wort, hawthorn, elderberry.
Tablets for sleeping on the basis of grasses are more convenient to use and replace tinctures from natural herbs. They are useful in the mild form of insomnia, increased nervousness. Their main virtue is a soothing, relaxing effect; completely solve the problem of insomnia, these drugs are not capable. To obtain the desired effect, they should be taken for at least three weeks.
- The hormone-like drug melaxen is an artificial analogue of a sleep hormone called melatonin. Tablets are very effective and with a minimum of contraindications: they do not provoke addiction, headaches, impaired coordination, do not affect the natural phases of sleep, the state of memory and attention during wakefulness. These qualities make melaxen safe and allow you to sell it without a prescription.
- The blockers of histamine receptors and ethylamines: donmyl, dimedrol, doxylamine, valocordin-doxylamine.
Harmless sleeping pills
Among the abundance of pharmacy products that relieve insomnia and its causes, there are so-called harmless sleeping pills. They are not addictive and have a minimum of undesirable consequences. Some of them dispensers dispensed without prescriptions.
Safe are the drugs, the formulation of which uses the sedative properties of medicinal plants:
- new passit,
To harmless tablets also include synthetic and combined sleeping pills:
- melaxen (melatonin),
In the arsenal of modern pharmacy, there are medicines for normalizing sleep in children, although they are rarely used. The choice depends on the age of the child: Persen appoint from three years old, dormiplant - from six, new-passit - from 12 years.
Sleep disorders have a different nature. Easy insomnia is overcome with the help of harmless drugs; in difficult cases, medical consultation and, possibly, long-term treatment are necessary. The choice of the drug and its dosage should be based on the individual problems of the patient and the qualified advice of the somnologist.