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Health

Pain of the skin

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 20.11.2021
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Very often we call illnesses wrong, we do not properly identify sick organs and, most importantly, quite often we do not really know what exactly hurts. Here is an example. Rarely can anyone tell a boil from a carbuncle at home. Since they cause skin pain, then, for most of us, these two diseases are classified as skin, therefore, the skin itself hurts. In fact, this is far from the case. Diseases are skin, but it hurts not the skin, as such.

The structure of the human skin is quite complex, roughly speaking, three-layered. Why is it rude? Because each layer, in turn, consists of many components, also located in layers. All the components of the skin structure need not be thoroughly known, but approximately to have an idea of the main layers - it will be useful.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7]

Diseases that cause skin pain

From the above layered structure of the skin, it can be seen that many factors can serve as the causes of skin diseases, from inflammation to deep trauma. Calling the main layers of the skin, it is worth mentioning about the skin appendages, which are also hair bulbs, hair pouches and even nails. All this can become inflamed, injured and accepted by us for the true pain of the skin. Although of all the diseases you can name only one, which has to do with the skin, and we already know that the "skin" is a layer called the dermis - the name of the disease "mug." In order not to be confused in terms, all diseases of the skin appendages and the skin itself will be referred to simply as skin diseases.

The most common skin diseases that give pain are:

  • boils
  • carbuncles
  • panaritium
  • hydradenites
  • lymphadenitis
  • mug

The first three diseases (furuncle, carbuncle and panaritium) are among the acute purulent inflammations, hydra- and lymphadenitis are also purulent, but can proceed without suppuration, they are not acute, but are growing inflammatory. Let us dwell on each of these inflammations in more detail.

trusted-source[8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17]

Furuncle

Among the many dangerous bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus has gained wide popularity. It is he who becomes the main cause of the emergence of acute inflammation of the hair sac, with the transition to nearby tissues. As a result of the inflammatory process, connective tissues become necrotic. On the surface of the skin appears swelling and redness, the skin to the touch in this place is hot. Inflammation extends to the lymph nodes, located at a close distance to the site of the lesion, making them enlarged and painful. The swelling quickly turns into a painful tubercle, the pain of the skin, near and above it, increases, a white stain appears in the center of the tubercle. So the furuncle is formed. Favorite places of his education - neck, back, occipital region, sometimes formed on the face. In addition to the local inflammatory manifestations are noted: weakness, headaches, sleep and appetite disorders.

Among the most probable reasons for the appearance of boils may be called:

  • normal contamination of the skin, falling into the microtraumas of the upper layer of the skin and causing inflammation of the hair follicles;
  • increased secretion of secretions from sweat and sebaceous glands - lard and sweat clog hair follicles, attract various kinds of harmful microorganisms, which contributes to the development of inflammation;
  • violation of metabolic processes in the body.

The most dangerous place for the appearance of furuncles is the face. It is dangerous for possible complications. The proximity of the brain increases the likelihood of the transition of the inflammatory process to its departments. Therefore, for any inflammatory manifestations on the face, you need to consult a doctor before applying any measures.

Furunculosis

Simultaneous, multiple appearance of furuncles on a large area of the body is called "furunculosis". Furuncles have a pronounced inflammation, the tubercle strongly rises above the general level of the surface of the skin. Inflammation is stretched for several days, the furuncle seems to "ripen", gradually drawing into the purulent process surrounding tissue and even the nearby sebaceous gland. The furuncle resembles a tight knot with a pointed apex. The top of the node is the core of the furuncle. Above this rod, the accumulated pus has a white color; when the furuncle is opened, greenish purulent infiltration can be seen; this is the most vivid diagnostic proof of the furuncle. With furunculosis eruptions, the pain of the skin is markedly expressed, all surface prone to furuncles is swollen and hyperemic, the general condition also suffers. Weakness, bad mood, fever, irritability due to constant discomfort from painful sensations. The pain is of a twofold nature, at the site of inflammation it first pulls, then a small and constant pulsation appears. Heavy forms of furunculosis are complicated by the associated lymphadenitis of nearby lymph nodes.

Opening the boil in an acute stage is possible, and necessary, only in a medical institution under sterile conditions. The ulcer after removal of the purulent infiltrate remains open, for complete purification of it from pus it is necessary to apply special means, for example, hydrogen peroxide, with the subsequent imposing of ointment bandages. If the acute phase does not take any therapeutic measures, especially the faithful, furunculosis turns into a chronic, often recurrent form.

Clear causes of furunculosis is a weakened immune system, which is quickly susceptible to attacks of staphylococci. Staphylococcal infection is present in the body, in a normal, healthy state, almost constantly, but does not have a negative effect as long as the immunity controls it. As soon as there is a weakening in the immune environment, all the foci of chronic lesions, from carious teeth and tonsillitis, to diabetes mellitus and errors in the diet - a direct path to furunculosis eruptions.

Carbuncle

If a furuncle is a lesion of one hair follicle and tissues that are around it, then a few hairs suffer at the carbuncle, with the damage of deep tissues, up to the dermis, with the involvement of the sebaceous gland into the inflammation. Thus, during the inflammation involved a whole group of hairs and other elements of the structure of the skin. As a result of inflammation, the necrosis of tissues occurs quickly, merging into a single continuous spot. Carbuncle, if I may say so, is a few furuncles fused together.

Where the skin experiences constant friction with the elements of clothing, with the contamination of contaminating putrefactive microorganisms into these areas, the carbuncle will first appear - the neck (the back side of it), the back (the lumbar region), in rare cases the face. The pain of the skin in these places is growing from weak soreness to sharp and persistent burning, the skin has a cyanotic-purple color, because of the process of tissue death, the entire lesion is edematous, with the presence of purulent inclusions. Tearing off, dead tissue, leave behind a deepening in the form of a funnel and then turning it into a wound, at the bottom of which there is a gray-putrefactive infiltration, the edges of the funnel are uneven.

The disease is accompanied not only by local manifestations of inflammation, but also by common symptoms of malaise - an increase in body temperature to high indices, headaches and dizziness, nausea, often resulting in vomiting. In cases of multiple carbuncles, a loss of consciousness may be added to all the symptoms described. This is the severity of intoxication for the whole organism in carbuncles.

General exhaustion of the body, exhausting chronic disorders in the work of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidney pathologies, disruptions in the pancreas (for example, diabetes mellitus) - all these factors are surely revealed in patients with carbuncles.

trusted-source[18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26]

Felon

Another disease, acute and purulent, is panaritium - an inflammatory process around the nail plate. Nail, as well as hair bags or sebaceous glands, treat the appendages of the skin. With panarits, people often meet in everyday life, when on the border of the skin and nail arises red, a hard swelling and there is pain in the skin. Even there is a widespread treatment of a "growing" panaricle at home. It is believed that, once the panaritium becomes pronounced, it is necessary to lower the affected finger into boiling water and quickly remove it. Repeat this procedure 5-7 times. Ostensibly, thus, the abscess warms up, till the time ripens and by itself will pass. It is unacceptable to warm up panarits at home, to open it! To experiment and guess where the pus will go-outward or further into the bone-is a dangerous and wasteful time. The first and most important - the panaritium has several types:

  • surface
  • deep
  • paronychia
  • pandactylite

These types of panaritium differ from each other by the degree of penetration into the depth of the skin and the damage to various tissues and structures.

Superficial panaritiums are infected micro cracks in which a pathogenic microbe has "settled" and caused inflammation. On the skin, under the skin and under the fingernail - these are the places where a surface panic occurs. If a panic occurs on the skin (under its uppermost layer), the following symptoms and manifestations appear:

  • small-sized bubble filled with liquid. The color of the liquid is from a cloudy to a dull-sour, sometimes with a large predominance of blood;
  • redness of the tissues around the bladder;
  • painful sensations, more reminiscent of pulsation. The pain of the skin is not pronounced, but unpleasant and constant, with the pressure on the panaritium the pain intensifies;
  • overall well-being does not suffer much;
  • a few days after the onset of purulent infection can go to a deeper stage, with the defeat of more tissues.

Subcutaneous panaritium manifests itself as more pronounced symptoms. The pain is exhausting, constant with an intensification at night, pulling, shooting. Touching the finger is very painful, the patient "protects" the injured finger from any movements, so as not to increase the suffering. If you do not ask for qualified help in time, then after a while you can notice that any movements of the damaged finger are incredibly painful. This is a signal to the fact that the stage of a deep panic has come.

In this case, the tendons, bones and joints of the finger are "included" in the inflammation. Deep panaritium is dangerous for its complications. The fact is that with a deep location of the purulent focus, pus is difficult to reach the surface, having overcome many obstacles. This fact is also due to the incredible pain caused by the deep panic, and the feeling of bursting not only in the finger, but also completely in the entire palm of your hand.

The pain of the skin around the upper phalanx of the finger can be the first sign of the development of a subungual or peri-oral felon. From the name of clear location of the purulent center. The reasons I can serve are incoming foreign bodies, nyxes or wounds of the perihotic zone or the nail plate itself. If the entire okolonogtevo bed is inflamed, then this is another kind of panaricium - paronychia. In those cases when medical assistance was not provided on time, or as a result of poor-quality treatment, the inflammation spreads and captures the entire finger at once - pandactylitis develops. The most difficult and severe form of panaricium. The outcome of such a defeat is the amputation of the finger.

trusted-source[27], [28], [29], [30], [31], [32], [33]

Hydradenite

The largest and multiple exits of sweat glands on the surface of the skin are located in the armpits. It is in this place that the sweat glands, most often, are prone to inflammatory processes. The cause of hydradenitis is still the same - staphylococcus. Inflammation develops with the gradual seizure of new territories, first only sweat gland is involved, then adjacent soft tissues become inflamed with the transition to a deep level. Not observance of elementary rules of personal hygiene against a background of strong sweating, frequent intertrigo and weak immunity are the main predisposing factors of hydradenitis. Hydraenitis is more common in women. In the armpits, it is easy to feel painful seals, resembling small balls in shape, the skin acquires a reddish color. After some time, the density of nodules disappears, the purulent infiltrate rapidly pours inside, and the inflammation sweeps through other sweat glands. From the described process of the development of inflammation it can be seen that the disease is taking a long time. When gidradenite purulent contents do not go outside yourself. Treatment only under medical supervision

Lymphadenitis

Skin pain can also be caused by inflammation of the lymph nodes - lymphadenitis. Lymph nodes are part of the immune system, many pathogenic substances are retained in them, the products of decay from the vital activity of the cells, both the organism itself and the foreign cells, toxins that enter it, pass through them. When there is a pathogenic microflora in the lymph nodes, the inflammatory process begins to develop in large numbers. As an independent disease lymphadenitis is extremely rare, mainly it acts as a complication of the underlying disease that has an infectious origin.

The edema of the tissues and the enlargement of the lymph node itself cause sharp painful sensations, high body temperature indices testify, as a rule, of the severe purulent nature of the disease. Patients manifest all symptoms of intoxication from headache and nausea, to loss of appetite, weakness and weakness. In very severe cases, the abscess can cover the entire knot, melt the entire lymphatic tissue and break through. Rising with the blood flow throughout the body, inflammation can affect distant organs.

Erys

If there are lesions, injuries, scratches on the surface of the skin, especially the lower limbs, with the entry of staphylococcal infection into them, the dermis lesion develops. The symptoms of erysipelas are:

  • skin pain, itching and burning on the surface of the damaged area;
  • appearance of protruding, with roll-like edges, red spots;
  • first small bubbles with yellow contents, which very quickly, merging with each other, form one large bubble, tightly filled with liquid;
  • feeling of raspiraniya in the affected area;
  • all symptoms of intoxication (from headache, to high fever).

With the appearance of the slightest suspicion of this disease, you should immediately consult a doctor. In time, the treatment will allow to shorten the duration of the inflammatory process as much as possible and limit the affected area.

trusted-source[34], [35]

Skin Structure

As already mentioned above, the skin is three-layered and consists of: epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. Now about each layer in more detail. What we are accustomed to call "skin" is, none other than the uppermost layer, called the epidermis. He is the thinnest of all layers of the skin, despite the fact that he himself is five layers and consists of layers of different cells. The negative effect of the environment is, first of all, on the upper layer of the epidermis, as well as wounds, infections, injuries. Therefore, skin pain is often associated with damage to its upper layer - the epithelium. The lowest layer of the epidermis is in contact with the blood vessels of the next cutaneous layer, the dermis. In this lower, or, in scientific terms, the basal layer of the epidermis, there are processes of cell division and their metabolism. Within a month the cells divide, pass their full life cycle and rise, meanwhile, to the upper layer, where they lose their nucleoli, moisture and turn into dead or dead cells - the epithelium. Horny cells are removed from the skin surface during water procedures, as a result of rubbing against the outer clothing. Thus, the upper layer of the epidermis is constantly updated, and the renewal period is one month.

The second layer is called the dermis or the skin itself, in the broadest, scientific sense. Its composition is very rich. Here, also the sebaceous sweat glands, and muscle fibers, bulbs and hair shafts, and, of course, collagen and elastin fibers, which, with the support of interstitial substance, are called the skeleton of the skin. Immediately, vessels and nerve endings, tactile and other cells. The pain of the skin here, is provoked by many reasons. It can be both deep traumas, bruises, and inflammatory diseases of all structural components of the dermis.

The lowest layer of human skin is the hypodermis, it is the subcutaneous fat. Due to this layer, a person, under normal conditions, does not suffer and does not die from a sudden hypothermia of the body, the hypoderma protects from energy starvation, since in those moments when the body lacks energy, it "takes" it, splitting the stores of adipose tissue from the subcutaneous fat cellulose. In addition, the dermis serves as a shock absorber in times of sharp impacts, jumps or jolts. In it, among other things, contain deep vessels, nerves and nerve endings.

Diagnosis of skin diseases

Diagnosis of skin diseases is simple enough, because the entire characteristic picture of the lesion is before your eyes. It is enough just to get acquainted with the symptoms of the course of the disease, a visual picture and support for some tests on the microflora, where staphylococcal infection is usually detected. The data of a general blood test can confirm the diagnosis, delivered, initially, on a visual examination of the affected area.

trusted-source[36], [37], [38], [39], [40], [41], [42], [43], [44], [45], [46]

Treat skin pain

All acute inflammations with a purulent manifestation are treated by a surgeon. If the inflammatory process is insignificant, as for example, with a superficial panaritium, an easy stage of a furuncle, the surgeon will prescribe treatment without surgery. This can be thermal procedures, ointment dressings, the use of antiseptic drugs, as well as the maintenance of antibiotic therapy.

Carbuncles in the surgical room are treated with antibiotics with Novocaine preparations, in severe cases, the appointment of a blood transfusion is the best method of treatment. Certainly appoint a maintenance therapy aimed at increasing the body's resistance.

At skin diseases at first conservative treatment is appointed with the subsequent connection operative. If the situation is initially complicated, then immediately indicated surgical intervention. So panaritium, in general, is treated only in an operative way. The abscesses are opened, the wounds are cleared, drainage is put in the wound and left under the bandage for several days, changing the dressings and drainage daily or every other day. Drainage is needed to ensure that all pus coming out independently and the edges of the wound are not closed. As soon as the pus ceased to leave, the wound became clean, begin to apply only ointment bandages. All this time, treatment is supported by antibiotics.

For yourself, the main thing to remember is that the abscess should never be opened by yourself, no matter how insignificant it might seem.

Furunculosis is treated by a dermatologist. No home ointments and creams help with this disease can not. Before applying the ointment, it is necessary to disinfect the purulent wound, exclude water from getting onto it, which means no water procedures, except for wiping with a damp towel soaked in weak solutions of antiseptics. Until the furuncle ripens, it is chewed with novocaine preparations to calm the pain of the skin, give antibiotics support. If furuncles mature well and their rod is clearly expressed, then observation is conducted until the moment of independent rejection of it. In cases where the furuncle resembles an abscess (there is no independent breakthrough), a forced surgical dissection is performed. In any case, after opening the wound is treated, following the algorithm for purulent wounds. For subsequent healing, various ointment dressings are used. In addition to local treatment, general restorative therapy is prescribed, with the connection of vitamins, the correct regime of the day and a balanced diet aimed at maintaining immunity.

During the treatment of hydradenitis, antibiotics are prescribed without fail. Under the control of the analysis of the sensitivity of pathogenic microflora to antibiotics, the desired drug is selected and administered at doses that depend on the patient's age. Warmup procedures are prescribed, for example, UHF, therapy aimed at raising the immune environment. In the presence of abscesses, their operative opening is performed.

To eliminate the effects of purulent lymphadenitis, surgeons resort to opening the purulent area, purge the purulent contents, and then install drainage into the wound cavity, so that the newly formed purulent fluid has a free exit from the wound, not accumulating inside. Then the same therapy is prescribed, as in the treatment of hydradenitis.

Treatment measures in erysipelas include local application of antiseptic agents and quartz lamps, treatment of wounds with iodine derivatives. Drug therapy includes antibiotics, analgesics with severe pain.

How to prevent skin pain?

Prevention of purulent skin diseases is not very intricate. It is necessary to observe basic hygiene in your home, in a personal plan, to strengthen immunity, eating the right food and taking care of the strength of your body, through physical exercises. Depending on the season and age, it is worth switching to complex vitamin complexes, in the summer-autumn period, to consume more fruits and vegetables. Do not get strong sunburns that cause skin pain. Such sunburns lead to a decrease in the resistance of the skin to various infections that fall into its deep layers through an epidermis that has lost its strength. 

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