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Enterovirus infections: treatment and prevention
Medical expert of the article
Hospitalization is carried out according to clinical indications. There is no etiotropic treatment of enterovirus infections. Carry out detoxification treatment of enterovirus infections. When meningitis and meningoencephalts are prescribed dehydration treatment of enterovirus infections using saluretics (furosemide, acetazolamid), in severe cases, dexamethasone is used at 0.25 mg / kg per day for 2-4 days. Treatment of enteroviral infections is based on the appointment of human leukocyte interferon, ribonuclease, but there are no data on their effectiveness obtained by evidence-based medicine. To improve the rheological properties of blood and vascular tone, pentoxifylline, solcoseryl, vinpocetine are used. Desensitizing preparations are shown. In case of epidemic myalgia, pain relievers are treated with analgesics. Treatment of patients with poliomyelitis-like forms is carried out in the same way as patients with polio, and patients with enteroviral myocarditis are prescribed cardioprotectors.
Approximate terms of incapacity for work
The period of disability depends on the clinical form of the infection. Inpatient treatment for serous meningitis lasts up to 3 weeks. Patients are discharged after complete clinical recovery and sanation of the cerebrospinal fluid.
Clinical follow-up of persons who have had an enterovirus infection is not regulated. The terms for monitoring patients are determined individually. With lesions of the cardiovascular system and the central nervous system, dispensary observation should be at least 6 months.
What should the patient know?
Recommendations are given individually and usually include:
- balanced diet;
- preventing supercooling, insolation and other stress conditions;
- limitation of significant physical activity:
- after the transferred meningitis, meningoencephalitis - within a year exclusion of flights by plane, stay in the mountainous terrain, scuba diving. Vaccination (except for emergency, as for example, against rabies), insolation. It is advisable to limit salt intake.
How is enteroviral infection prevented?
Specific prevention of enterovirus infections
Specific prophylaxis of enterovirus infections has not been developed.
Nonspecific prevention of enterovirus infections
Enterovirus infection is prevented by the introduction of human immunoglobulin from the 0.3-0.5 ml / kg calculation in children under 3 years of age who have been in contact with patients, and for 7 days are injected into the nose with leukocyte interferon 5 drops 3 times a day. Preventive and anti-epidemic measures are carried out in the epidemiological focus. Patients are isolated for 14 days: wet cleaning of premises is carried out using disinfectants (0.1% hydrochloric acid solution, 0.3% formaldehyde solution). In children's establishments establish quarantine for 14 days. Workers of maternity hospitals and children's institutions in contact with patients are transferred to another job for 14 days.