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Chicken food poisoning

Medical expert of the article

Infectious disease
, medical expert
Last reviewed: 04.09.2021

Food poisoning is dangerous because it leads to a disorder of the body's vital functions, and sometimes even death. This happens due to the ingestion of food contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms inside a person. Chicken meat is very susceptible to such threats, and given its availability and excellent taste, it often provokes foci of mass poisoning. [1]

Epidemiology

Even those poisoning in schools, kindergartens, public catering, which get into the media, testify to the scale of this phenomenon. Adding to them unpublished facts, isolated facts that happened behind closed doors of apartments and private houses, a sad picture of infections emerges.

In these statistics, a significant role belongs to chicken meat as a source of intoxication.

The cases of poisoning have become especially frequent after the abolition of the sanitary and epidemiological service of our country in 2014.

Causes of the chicken poisoning

The shelf life of chicken is 36 hours at + 4 ° C or 24 hours at + 7 ° C. When buying in supermarkets, it is reasonable to make sure of the terms of its suitability (although there are cases of fraudulent re-sticking of labels). Most often, the cause of poisoning is the unsuitability of meat for consumption due to its rotting, as well as insufficient roasting. [2] The immediate culprits are:

  • salmonella  - the chicken was initially infected with it; [3],  [4], [5]
  • staphylococci - bacteria that infect meat if stored improperly or got into it through dirty hands; [6], [7]
  • antibiotics and other additives - they are stuffed with poultry in poultry farms in order to avoid diseases and for accelerated growth of the individual.

Most raw chickens contain Campylobacter. [8],  [9] They may also contain perfringens of Clostridium  [10],  [11] and other bacteria. Raw meat can contain E. Coli,  [12] yersinia  [13],  [14] and other bacteria. [15]

Risk factors

For people who consume chicken meat, the summer period is dangerous. Going out on picnics, people most often take it with them, because it is quickly cooked over the fire, soft, juicy and tasty. Another risk factor is finding fried meat outside the refrigerator, because everything is not immediately eaten on the tables.

Pathogenesis

Foodborne infections are caused by pathogens that multiply and release toxins both in the meat itself and once inside a person. They are poisoned with boiled, smoked, undercooked, grilled cinnamon, as well as raw, if you do not wash your hands after contact with it. All manifestations of poisoning are associated with the body's response to a toxic attack. The disease is characterized by a short incubation period (about an hour), an acute initial and violent subsequent.

Symptoms of the chicken poisoning

The clinical picture largely depends on the type of pathogen. So, the first signs of staphylococcal infection are nausea, vomiting, cutting pain in the epigastrium and the navel. The nature of the stool does not change, but dizziness, muscle weakness, loss of strength, cyanosis of the skin, convulsions, and loss of consciousness may appear. [16]

Other infections can be accompanied by loose stools, up to the appearance of blood fragments in the feces, their fetid odor, high fever, and fever.

Complications and consequences

As with any poisoning, adverse consequences and complications from chicken poisoning occur if the patient is not helped in time and the body becomes dehydrated. It is fraught with disruption of the functions of human systems and organs due to the impossibility of metabolic processes, and the loss of 20% of the fluid leads to death. [17]

Diagnostics of the chicken poisoning

Diagnostics is carried out on the basis of the patient's complaints, the study of epidemiology (an isolated case or there was an outbreak of the disease), the route of infection is found out.

The final diagnosis is made on the basis of laboratory studies, namely bacteriological inoculation of vomit, feces. It does not do without a general analysis of blood, urine and others, if necessary. [18]

Instrumental diagnostics may be needed to determine the degree of damage to other organs (liver, kidneys, heart), including ultrasound, electrocardiogram. [19]

To differentiate poisoning, it is necessary to determine the type of pathogen. 

Who to contact?

Treatment of the chicken poisoning

The main direction of treatment for chicken poisoning is the elimination of the toxin from the body. This is done by washing the stomach until the clean wash water flows out, drinking plenty of saline solutions, hot sweet tea, taking enterosorbents, and, if necessary, antibiotics. [20]

Properly organized nutrition plays its positive role in the acute period. The menu should consist of soups, unsaturated meat broths, cereals, mashed potatoes, boiled lean meat and fish, jelly, biscuits, crackers. 

To restore the digestive function, it is necessary to use enzyme preparations.

Medicines

To replenish the loss of fluid, the patient is given to drink in small portions or the following composition is administered through a nasogastric tube: 20 g of glucose, 2.5 g of baking soda, 1.5 g of potassium chloride and 3.5 g of sodium chloride per liter of water. Intravenous administration of saline solutions is also possible: quartasol, disol, acesol. [21]

Activated carbon, smectite, polysorb , enterosgel are used as enterosorbents.

Enterosgel - available in the form of a paste or hydrogel, packaged in a tube. A detoxification drug for removing toxins, viruses, bacteria from the body. In case of joint treatment with other drugs, a temporary distance of 1.5-2 hours must be observed.

It is taken 3 times a day, in between meals. A single dose for children under 5 years old - a teaspoon (up to 2 years old can be mixed with water), 5-14 years old - dessert, older - dining room. The course of treatment is 7-14 days.

The drug can cause constipation. Contraindication is acute intestinal obstruction.

A complicated form of the disease requires the use of antimicrobial drugs aimed at the identified type of pathogenic organisms. It can be levomycetin, polymyxin-m-sulfate, ampicillin.

Polymyxin-m-sulfate - the activity of the drug is determined by biological means and is expressed in units of action (U), 1 mg contains 8000 U. Children 3-4 years old are recommended a daily dose of 100,000 IU per kilogram of body weight, 5-7 years old - 1,400,000 IU, 8-10 years old 1,600,000 IU, 11-14 years old - 2,000,000 IU, after this age 3,000,000 IU, divided by 3-4 reception. Duration of treatment is 5-10 days, after a four-day break it can be repeated.

Long-term use can negatively affect the kidneys, their pathology prohibits the use of the remedy.

The enzymes pancreatin, festal, pepsin help to establish the digestive process.

Pepsin is a substitution therapy drug, tablets are taken 2 pieces 3-4 times a day, previously dissolved in 0.5 glasses of water. It is not used in pediatric practice, since there are no trials for this group of patients.

It is not prescribed for hyperacid gastritis, erosive, ulcers, as well as hypersensitivity to its components. Rarely, nausea, constipation, and allergic reactions are possible.

Lactobacterin, bifikol, bifidumbacterin help to restore the intestinal microflora.

Bifikol is an antidiarrheal drug containing live strains of bifidobacteria and Escherichia coli. It can be used from the age of six months. The powder should be diluted in boiled water in a ratio of 1: 1 (a spoonful of the drug to a spoonful of liquid), drink 20-30 minutes before meals.

The daily dose for different ages is different:

  • 6-12 months - 2-3 teaspoons;
  • 1-3 years - 3-5 (tsp);
  • 3-5 years - 5-6 (tsp);
  • 5-10 years old - 6-8 (tsp);
  • children over 10 years old - 8-10 (tsp);
  • adults - 10-15 doses.

The resulting mixture is divided into 2-3 doses. Therapy can last from 2 weeks to 2 months. After two weeks of treatment, the volume of the drug can be halved and reduced to one dose. Contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity to it. [22]

Vitamins

It is important to support the body affected by the poisoning with vitamins. With the loss of fluid, substances useful for life also leave. After eliminating the symptoms, it is necessary to replenish the supply of vitamin A, since it prevents infectious diseases, vitamin C - strengthens the immune system, vitamin B1 - is good for the intestines, vitamin PP - normalizes the synthesis of gastric juice, vitamin B12 - improves metabolism, folic acid - relieves inflammation of the mucous membrane of the digestive organs.

It is necessary to take care of products containing these useful components, as well as resort to vitamin complexes.

Physiotherapy treatment

Of the available physiotherapeutic methods for food poisoning, the treatment of mineral water is used . It is prescribed by a doctor in the absence of vomiting to replenish fluid loss, get rid of toxins, and restore blood acidity. Usually recommend alkaline water "Borzhomi", "Essentuki", "Polyana kvasova", "Luzhanskaya".

Alternative treatment

If chicken poisoning is not too difficult and life threatening, alternative treatments can be used. The stomach is washed with salt water or a weak solution of potassium permanganate.

A solution can improve the patient's condition: a liter of boiled water, a teaspoon of salt and soda, 8 tablespoons of sugar, drunk in 3 doses.

You can chew 3-4 black peppercorns, this will have a detrimental effect on pathogenic organisms, disinfect the digestive organs.

Herbal treatment

There are many herbs in nature that can cope with poisoning. Celery root has a good effect: juice is obtained from fresh (1-2 small spoons before meals), an infusion is made from dried (2 tablespoons of crushed raw materials in a glass of water, take a third of a glass three times a day).

They also drink decoctions of chamomile,  [23]  lemon balm, St. John's wort, mint, plantain.

Homeopathy

In the pharmacies of our country, you can find homeopathic medicines that can overcome food poisoning:

  • amarin - antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, analgesic drops; do not apply to children under 11 years of age, people with stomach and intestinal ulcers. Drops are diluted in a small volume of water, in one dose the dose for adults is 10-20 drops, for children - 10. Multiplicity of doses per day - 3 times. May cause allergic reactions;
  • enterokind is a viscous liquid, intended for children from birth to 6 years old with intestinal disorders. Acute conditions involve taking 3 drops every hour, but no more than 6 times, with a weakening of symptoms - 3 times a day;
  • sodium chloratum salt of Dr. Schussler No. 8 - regulates the acid-water balance, has no age restrictions: dose up to a year - 1 tablet 1-2 times a day (dissolve in water), 1-5 years old - 1-3 times, 6-11 years 1-4 p., older - up to 6 times. Supersensitivity reactions are possible. Contraindicated in patients with lactose intolerance.

Homeopaths for meat poisoning prescribe Arsenicum album, Carbo vegetabilis, Pulsatilla.

Forecast

In the overwhelming majority of cases, the prognosis of chicken poisoning is favorable. With the development of septic complications, a fatal outcome is possible.


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