Antibiotics for otitis
Otitis is an acute or chronic inflammatory process in various ear zones (external, middle or inner). Antibiotics in otitis are prescribed necessarily, based on the severity and stage of the process, the sensitivity of microorganisms, the degree of development of clinical symptoms, the age of the patient.
Untreated ear infections require the appointment of stronger antibiotics. Sometimes it is necessary to use not one, but several types of antibacterial agents, if the pathological process is in a neglected stage.
Consider the advisability of antibiotic therapy for inflammatory diseases of the ear.
Do you need antibiotics for otitis?
Antibiotic therapy is very important in the development of inflammatory processes. However, many experts are of the opinion that before the spontaneous perforation of the ear membrane and the exit of the exudative fluid, there is no need to prescribe antibiotics. The acute stage of uncomplicated otitis usually lasts for 5 days. Antimicrobial therapy is used in cases when symptomatic treatment of catarrhal otitis does not bring relief to the patient: the ear pain does not pass, the acuity of hearing is worsening, there are signs of general intoxication of the body.
When purulent discharge appears, an analysis is made of the content of microflora and the determination of its sensitivity to antibiotics. If there is no way to gain access to exudate, they make a puncture for taking samples of the intra-oral contents, or dispense with the prescription of broad-spectrum antimicrobials.
Prevention of complications, especially in patients with low immune defense, can also serve as an indication for the prescription of antibiotic therapy.
What antibiotics to drink when otitis?
The most popular remedy, amoxicillin, has an excellent antimicrobial and antiseptic effect. In the absence of a patient's allergy to semisynthetic penicillins, it can be successfully administered at any stage of the inflammatory process. However, this drug is contraindicated in patients with impaired functional ability of the liver, during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Aminoglycoside, netilmicin, is a drug for local injection use, used for no more than 14 consecutive days. Has good therapeutic parameters and a minimum of side effects.
The question about the appointment of medications is taken by the doctor individually after the results of the tests for the microflora of secretions.
If it is not possible to test the sensitivity of microflora to the action of antimicrobial agents, broad-spectrum drugs are prescribed:
- levomycetin, alcohol solution. Used on 2-3 drops with purulent otitis;
- amoxicillin 3-3.5 grams per day;
- augmentin 375 mg 3 times a day;
- cefuroxime IM injection;
- ceftriaxone 1 time per day;
- ampicillin in / m injection.
The connection of antibiotics to the otitis treatment schedule significantly reduces the likelihood of complications and improves the prognosis of the disease.
Antibiotics for otitis in children
Immediately before prescribing any medications, the child needs to assess his general condition and determine the further treatment tactics.
If a child has signs of otitis, it should not be rushed to prescribe antibiotics. They are used only in severe, moderate and complicated cases, especially in children under 2 years old, when the immune system is still in its infancy.
With an easy course of the inflammatory process, older children are usually treated with the elimination of clinical manifestations of the disease, using analgesics, ear drops, compresses, ointments, lotions. But if there is a characteristic picture of the general intoxication of the body, there is an increased temperature, persistent headaches - you can not do without antibiotics. In such cases, the sick child is hospitalized in the hospital, where the doctor decides on the further use of the drugs. Typically, preference is given to the known and effective antibiotic amoxicillin. However, if within two days after taking the child's well-being did not improve, another drug, for example, from the cephalosporin series, is prescribed.
During the treatment with antibiotics, the prescribed dosage should be strictly observed throughout the entire prescribed course, even in cases of persistent improvement in the general condition of the patient. Because of the unmotivated dose reduction, weakened, but living bacteria can gain new strength, and then the inflammatory process will flash again.
Antibiotics for otitis in adults
Otitis in adults often has an infectious etiology. Therefore, antibacterial drugs are used quite often, along with analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, with warming procedures and washing with antiseptic.
The type of antibiotic administered is determined depending on the infection present in the ear. In severe cases, several types of antibiotics can be used concomitantly, for example, orally and as intramuscular injections.
In acute otitis media, antibiotics are prescribed without fail: amoxicillin, amoxiclav, doxycycline, rovamycin. The drugs are administered in the form of tablets and capsules for internal use, and for severe and unfavorable course of the disease, intramuscular or intravenous injections are used.
Antibiotic therapy with caution is prescribed to elderly people and is categorically contraindicated in women during gestation and breastfeeding of a child.
Antibiotics for acute otitis media
The acute course of otitis is characterized by a sharp increase in symptoms, a rapid deterioration in the overall well-being of the patient-worried by a painful earache that affects the entire half of the head and teeth, a rapid rise in body temperature to 39 degrees.
Very effective in such situations antibacterial agents, applied topically, in the form of drops and ointments. But in many cases there is a need for taking systemic drugs. Combined antibiotics have a wider range of effects, high functional activity. Such combinations of drugs as neomycin + bacitracin, polymyxin + hydrocortisone have high performance indicators.
For the treatment of acute otitis can be used any of the antibiotics of a wide range of applications that have a pronounced bactericidal action and restore the natural weakly acidic environment of the auditory canal. The most suitable are semi-synthetic penicillins, resistant to beta-lactamases (dicloxacillin orally or oxacillin intravenously, and also a group of cephalosporins).
Antibiotics for chronic otitis media
Chronic otitis develops, as a rule, with improper or untimely treatment of acute inflammation.
Chronic otitis is characterized by a wide variety of pathogens, the mixing of different types of bacteria in the exudate, which greatly complicates the choice of antibiotic and the appointment of a general treatment regimen. Destruction of the polymicrobial flora requires the use of more powerful drugs, and sometimes their combinations.
In the case of long-standing and difficult to treat chronic forms of otitis medications such as sparfloma (400 mg orally at the beginning, 200 mg daily) are prescribed, 400 mg avelox daily at one time. The course of treatment should last from 10 to 14 days, with mandatory background reception of antifungal and normalizing microflora drugs and vitamin complexes.
Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, which is very popular in medical institutions in Europe. This drug is good in that it has a harmful effect on both active bacteria and immobile ones. It is taken on an empty stomach three times a day, the maximum daily dose of 750 mg.
Antibiotics for medium otitis media
Otitis media, the most common form of otitis media, is an inflammatory process in the middle ear region.
Antibiotic therapy is prescribed, as a rule, with the development of complications, a protracted course of the disease and the presence of fluid in the ear canal. The most suitable drug is selected based on the patient's allergic sensitivity, his condition and age. If it is impossible to clarify which specific pathogen caused the disease, a systemic antibiotic acting on a wide spectrum of the most typical pathogens of otitis (pneumococcal infection, hemophilic rod, moraxella, etc.) is prescribed.
Most often in the treatment of otitis media preference is given to amoxicillin. The usual dosage for adults is 3 g daily, three times a day. Children take 85 mg per kg of body weight per day.
If after 2-3 days the clinical picture does not improve, it is necessary to replace this antibiotic with a stronger combination drug - for example, amoxiclav, cefuroxime.
Antibiotics for purulent otitis
The development of purulent otitis is characterized by the breakthrough of the internal membrane and the release of purulent contents outwards.
In this period it is advisable to designate rinses with antimicrobial agents (not having ototoxic effect, that is, not depressing the auditory function), the introduction of combined solutions of antibiotics into the ear cavity. Such procedures are carried out exclusively in a hospital or clinic by an otolaryngologist.
General therapeutic methods for purulent otitis do not differ from those in the standard inflammatory process. Antibacterial therapy is carried out by complex preparations erythromycin, clarithromycin, amoxiclav, ceftriaxone. With the development of complications and long-term course of the disease, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, olfen) are connected. The well-known drug of the first generation ampicillin remains popular, although more rational use of newer drugs - amoxicillin (flemoxin, ospamox).
Antibiotics for external otitis
External otitis affects the skin of the ear, the outer zone of the auditory canal and the periosteum, which is located just under the skin. If it is not possible to examine the state of the tympanic membrane and to exclude a deeper spread of the process, the treatment is prescribed simultaneously for both external and internal otitis media.
The main point in the treatment of external otitis media is the use of antibiotics in the form of ear drops (ofloxacin, neomycin). You can also use a cotton swab with an antimicrobial ointment or antibiotic solution, injected deep into the ear canal. Such a tampon should be changed every 2.5 hours throughout the day.
It is necessary to connect additional methods of treatment, such as warming compresses, vitamin therapy, support of intestinal microflora.
Most often, in the treatment of external otitis media, there is no need to prescribe antimicrobial agents. Antibiotic therapy is performed only in cases of complications, or in patients with critically weakened immune forces of the body.
Drops from otitis with antibiotic
Drops used to treat ear inflammatory processes are usually very effective, since they are injected directly into the inflammatory focus. They can be of several types:
- hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs (otinum, otypaks);
- solutions of antibiotics (levomitsetin, noraks, tsipromed, fugentin);
- Combined solutions combining the action of an antibiotic and a glucocorticoid (sfradex, anauran, polydex, garazon).
The drug anauran is applicable for all types of acute and chronic forms of otitis, used by adults and children 3-5 drops three times a day.
Drops of sfradex can be used for medicinal purposes with otitis and conjunctivitis, have a strong anti-inflammatory and antiallergic local effect.
Drops, as a rule, have a fairly wide range of action. Used topically 4 drops twice a day in the affected ear, children 2-3 drops three times a day.
Ear drops, which contain corticosteroids, are cautiously prescribed to young children and pregnant women.
If you suspect a possible allergic reaction (swelling of the auricle, the appearance of rash, itching), the use of drops is discontinued, and the doctor reviews the treatment regimen and replaces the drug with a more suitable one.
The best antibiotic for otitis
The best antibiotic for otitis is determined by the results of the analysis for the microflora. As for the broad-spectrum drugs, it should be especially noted amoxicillin, which is most often used in medical practice with various types of otitis and in most cases has a positive therapeutic effect in all age groups.
Amoxicillin belongs to the penicillin series of antibiotics, it oppresses the action of most harmful microorganisms: streptococci, staphylococcus, E. Coli, etc.
The drug is used inside separately from food intake for 0.5 g 3 times a day, with a complicated disease up to 3 g per day. The duration of taking amoxicillin, like any other antibiotic, is at least 8-10 days. Even with a marked improvement in the patient's well-being and the disappearance of clinical symptoms, treatment continues until the indicated time. Untimely cancellation of antimicrobial agents can trigger a relapse of the inflammatory process, and in a more severe form.
How to cure otitis without antibiotics?
Therapeutic actions in uncomplicated otitis media may not include antibiotics. Sometimes there is more than enough conservative complex treatment of the inflammatory process:
- if necessary, prescribe antipyretics (aspirin, paracetamol);
- three times a day otipax preparation - 2 drops per diseased ear;
- application of a nasal spray to remove the edema of mucous membranes (nasivin, noxprey, etc.);
- at regular intervals, change ear pads with the drug substance (boric alcohol, vodka, onion juice);
- with external otitis, apply antibacterial agent to the ear and the adjacent zone;
- when inflammation should drink a lot of fluids, as with colds (tea made from raspberries, currants, dogrose, linden);
- provide the patient with peace, monitor the absence of drafts.
At the first signs of otitis, you can try to use alternative methods of treating the disease. Even those plants that grow directly in the house, on the window: aloe, colanchoe, agave, geranium, can be useful. A freshly cut leaf or a portion of it is folded into a turunda and inserted into a sore ear. You can squeeze out the juice from the plants and dig it in 3-5 drops into the diseased ear.
As a drop, you can also use a warm solution of honey, celandine juice, mint tincture, boric alcohol.
During treatment, you should drink a lot of liquid, it is not superfluous to take multivitamin complexes, as well as funds that strengthen immunity.
With a clear deterioration of the patient's condition, it is still necessary to consult a doctor to prevent further progression of the disease and the development of complications.
To avoid inflammation in the ear, remember that in the cold season it is not permissible to go out without a headdress, the more you should not do this immediately after taking a shower or taking a bath. After visiting the pool or swimming on the beach, you need to wipe your ears well, not allowing a long time of water, especially dirty, in the ear canals.
If the disease still comes up, treatment is best conducted under the supervision of a specialist who will prescribe the appropriate treatment and the necessary antibiotics for otitis.