In the first 12 months of life with your child, there have been such significant changes that their swiftness can be compared only with the speed of growth of bamboo! Just imagine: from a tiny, red, eternally screaming "worm" child turns into a little man. Its almost vegetative (in the first months of life) opportunities, consisting of alternating sleep, feeding and crying, have expanded to such an extent that it becomes interesting for you to communicate with it. Baggage, with which the child crosses the threshold of the second year of life, is not so small. In the motor skills have already been achieved certain successes, passed the successive stages of sitting, standing, crawling, walking and even trying to run. Hands the child can take objects, throw them. And already at this age you notice that one of the hands becomes the leading one and you can already determine whether your child is right handed or left-handed.
The emotional sphere becomes quite rich (compared to the monotonous emotions of the first months, which consisted in the expression of pleasure or displeasure). Now the child can express not only them, but also the joy that reaches the rapture, and he can strengthen displeasure to anger, turning into anger. There is a curiosity that can already be read on his face. It is perfectly clear when a child is afraid of something or something surprised. And what is important is not so much the very richness of emotions, as the variety of reasons for their manifestation, which the child can distinguish.
At this time, all the movements of the child, all forms of activity are imbued with emotionality. He jumps, runs, tears a paper, throws a dice or other toys, listens to unfamiliar sounds coming from another room or corridor, and you can always see enough expressive emotions on his face. They are manifested in the form of facial expressions, gestures, etc. A smile is a mimic movement that is characteristic only of a person. It appears in the first months of life, and by the end of the first year it is supplemented by laughter, stretching of little hands and various vowels.
At this age, the child is already quite consciously playing. If he remains alone and does not have anything to play for him, loneliness begins to weigh him down. But as soon as he sees familiar faces, joy just overwhelms him.
By the end of the first year the child begins to master speech and in the second year enters, having acquired monosyllabic and even some disyllabic words. But the stock of his words is much greater due to those that he knows, but can not pronounce.
Standing on his feet, the child is striving to conquer space. To do this, he already needs more time. Thus, from the "sleeping beauty" (in the first months of life the child sleeps about 20 hours), it gradually passes into a mode where only 10-13 hours are left for sleep. The rest of the time the child does not know a moment of peace. Everything that surrounds the child attracts his sensory and motor functions: he tries to touch everything, grabs everything that comes by the hand, pulls various objects into his mouth, and if he can not get any interested thing, he starts demanding that it was given to him. All these acts can be combined into one general colorful picture, which is called emotionality. And it involves not only mimic muscles and muscles of the skeleton, but all other functional systems of the body - cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, nervous. Thus, a one-year-old child reaches a certain stage of social development, but it is still quite primitive, since the concept of prohibition has not yet fully formed in the child (some of the "taboos" he already knows, but do not always fulfill). That is, periodically he can check whether it is really possible to do something that adults forbid him, or the ban can be violated. At the same time, he can already try to disguise his actions, so that he is not interrupted at the very beginning. At this age, the individuality of the child begins to manifest itself.
At the end of the first - the beginning of the second year of life the child continues to develop independent walking. Some children who have already learned to walk continue to crawl after a year and, in order to reach their goal faster, instead of running, they fall on all fours and quickly crawl, or rather, "run" on four limbs. In this case, crawling methods are improved and vary. Head holding, straightening of the neck, arms and back, simultaneous turning in opposite sides of the trunk and shoulders, trunk and pelvis, differentiated movements of shoulders and arms, trunk, legs and pelvis are noted. Developed for another year, these movements begin to unite in new motor skills.
For some time the kids continue to walk "sideways". At the age of 12-15 months the child can no longer hold on to the support, but he is not yet able to turn back from this position to get a toy. This will be possible only by a year and a half. Being in a vertical position, the child is not yet able to fully straighten the legs, so he stands "belly forward," and his legs are somewhat unfolded.
The more stable the child stands, the better the legs are developed. The hips and knees begin to unbend freely, and in the soles of the sole the flexion is formed. Due to this, the heel-to-finger shape of the step appears with the initial support on the heel, and then on the fingers - the so-called roll.
Starting from one and a half years old the baby independently rises from the position on the abdomen and on the back. The way of walking becomes more perfect: he no longer breeds his legs widely. The hands that the child lifted up to the level of the shoulders, trying to grab the surrounding objects to insure themselves, are now lowered along the trunk.
The main tool for learning the world for the child is the game. To do this, he manipulates various objects. He took them in hand before, but now, at the beginning of the second year of life, these actions with objects (toys, dishes, household items) have become more diverse and have acquired a different quality. Now actions with them are carried out not only with the help of hands and eyes. The neck, body and especially the legs take a big part. After all, now you can approach an interesting subject.
At the age of one to one and a half years the child begins to feel, turn, shake, disassemble, disconnect, and then connect the objects. He carries them from place to place, as if checking where they would look best. He can knock them, especially if the objects emit a melodic sound when they strike. During this period, children begin to learn how to throw and catch the ball.
The child, starting from the first months of the second year of life, is trying, and not without success, to move furniture. He can push a stool or chair for a long time in the kitchen, push it out from under the table, push it back, move into the room or move with it across the apartment. In doing so, you need to make sure that the stool, falling, does not nail the child. He can carry a car on a string, transport it from place to place, hide under a bed or in a closet, etc. Such motor activity is of great importance for the development of the child's motor skills, to develop the accuracy and consistency of his movements, to subordinate the work of the hands and feet to control eyes. The formation in this period of more and more exact coordination of movements leads to the development of the stability of the attention of the child, the accuracy of his perception, to the development of his volitional efforts.
If earlier the child was sitting in the arms of the mother or in the crib and saw all the objects in front of him, without seeing them from the other side, then beginning to walk, he passes them on the other side, getting acquainted with their size, learning the volume of objects. When children begin to walk, they become acquainted with the distance and direction in which they make their movements.
Learning to walk around the room, and then go beyond it, the child constantly meets with difficulties, with unexpected obstacles that he is compelled to overcome, with tasks that he must solve. For example, a baby pulls a mop behind him, which suddenly caught on the leg of the table, but he does not see it and continues to pull it, pull it. And if the mop does not give way, the child starts asking for help from adults. Looking at how an adult frees a mop, he learns to find the cause of the difficulty, and most importantly - to find a way out of the created difficulty. Thus, the initial forms of thinking develop. This form of thinking is called "thinking with your hands" and it is extremely necessary for the further mental development of the child.
The child wanted to get a machine from a high shelf. To do this, he needs to put a stool, climb on it and only then grab the coveted toy. He substitutes a stool, climbs on it, but it turns out that the stool is too far from the shelf and he can not get the typewriter. He climbs off the stool, moves it closer, again climbs on it and only then gets the coveted toy. Thus, he learns to achieve his goal, which develops his independence and perseverance. In doing so, your task is to ensure that the achievement of the goal is not dangerous for the child, but at the same time it is important to encourage the baby to such efforts.
Parallel with the improvement of mobility, small motor skills develop. The child becomes more dexterous! He can already take his fingers with small items, dismantle mother's jewelry on the part, open the caps of vials with medicines, etc. And now this is already dangerous! Moreover, all this stretches into the mouth, because the mouth is still an organ of knowledge. Thus, there is a risk of poisoning or ingress of a foreign body into the respiratory tract. If you just take these items or just scold it, the kid will still try to "outwit" you and get it. Therefore, having noticed that the child is doing something unprofitable, it is better to switch his attention to another game, and put dangerous items where he can not get. Although in some cases you can let him do what he wants, let the child himself feel and understand that what he does can hurt. (For example, the kid reached the box with needles, he turned it over and poured the needles onto the carpet.) Then he started to squeeze a handful of these needles and pricked his face with his palm, pain and surprise on his face turned to Mom.Mother had previously explained to him that the needles can prick the pen, and now repeated the same thing. After that, the kid stopped touching this box: the injury is small, but how instructive!)