Terms associated with pregnancy for future parents
In this article we have collected a lot of terms that the spouses may hear during pregnancy. Some of the terms refer to pregnancy, others to various tests that a pregnant woman will have to undergo. Some refer to childbirth, others refer to the time after the birth of the child. We divided the terms into:
- The main terms associated with pregnancy;
- Analyzes that the future mother and child will have to undergo;
- Childbirth and After the birth of a child.
Basic terms related to pregnancy
Cervix is the cervix of the uterus.
Fundus is the upper part of the uterus, often measured during pregnancy.
Pubic symphysis - a bone protrusion in the hip bone located in the middle of the lower abdomen of a woman. The sign by which the doctor often determines the growth of the uterus during pregnancy.
Rho-GAM is a drug used during pregnancy and subsequent childbirth to prevent isoimmunization.
Ablation of the placenta - premature separation of the placenta from the uterus.
Obstetrician is a doctor specializing in caring for pregnant women and taking birth.
Amniotic fluid is the liquid that surrounds the child inside the amniotic sac.
The amniotic sac is the membrane surrounding the child inside the uterus. It contains the baby, placenta and amniotic fluid.
Areola is a pigmented or colored ring around the nipple of the breast.
Pain in circular ligaments is pain caused by squeezing the ligaments along the sides of the uterus during pregnancy.
Vagina is the channel through which a child is born.
Varicose veins - stretching of blood vessels (veins).
Ectopic pregnancy - pregnancy, in which case the egg is implanted outside the uterus (most often in the fallopian tube).
A medical certificate is a document proving that the doctor has completed additional courses and passed examinations in a narrow specialty.
Miscarriage - interruption or premature termination of pregnancy. In this case, an embryo or fetus is born, unable to live outside the uterus; usually occurs before the 20th week of pregnancy.
Hemorrhoids are protruding blood vessels, mostly located around the rectum.
Genetic consultation - consultation of spouses and specialists about genetic defects and the possibility of the presence of genetic problems during pregnancy.
Genes are the basic units of heredity. Each gene carries specific information and is transmitted from the parent to the child. The child receives half of the genes from the mother, and the other half from the father. Each person has about 100,000 genes.
Hypertension caused by pregnancy - high blood pressure, which appears during pregnancy.
Human chorion gonadotropin is a hormone produced in the early stages of pregnancy; its content is measured using a test for the amount of HCH.
Defects of the neural tube - the pathology of the development of the embryonic chord and spinal cord.
Diabetes caused by pregnancy - the emergence of diabetes during pregnancy (gestation).
Born-up - a child is considered full-born if born after 38 weeks. Also called "completely full".
Iron deficiency anemia is anemia caused by a lack of iron in food; often happens during pregnancy.
Burning in the heart - the discomfort or pain that appears in the chest, often after eating.
Late births - the baby is born 2 weeks or more after the expected date.
Constipation - irregular or incomplete emptying of the intestine.
The embryonic abnormality is the irregular shape or development of the embryo.
Embryonic pathologies - problems associated with the embryo, arising prior to birth or during childbirth; often require immediate delivery or extraction of the fetus.
The embryonic period is the period following the embryonic period (the first 10 weeks of gestation) and before birth.
Isoimmunization is the transfer of specific antibodies located in the red blood cells of another individual, for example, a baby in the uterus. It occurs if a woman with a negative Rh factor nurtures a child with positive rhesus or if she is transfused with Rh-positive blood.
Blood pressure is the pressure of blood on the walls of arteries that carry blood from the heart. Changes in blood pressure can indicate problems.
The uterus is the organ within which the embryo or fetus develops.
Nurse-nurse is a registered nurse who has undergone additional courses on caring for pregnant women and taking birth. Stillbirth - fetal death before birth, usually occurring after 20 weeks of gestation.
Disorders of intrauterine growth - inadequate fetal growth during pregnancy. Previously referred to as a delay in the growth of uterine growth.
Stretch marks - skin stretches during pregnancy. Often located on the abdomen, mammary glands, buttocks and legs.
Indomitable vomiting of pregnant women - severe nausea, dehydration and vomiting during pregnancy. Most often occurs during the first trimester.
Relief is a change in the shape of the uterus in a pregnant woman a few weeks before the birth. Often described as the lowering of the child.
Expected date of birth is the date the child is expected to be born. Most children are born around this time, but only 1 in 20 is born exactly on that day.
Perinatologist - a doctor who specializes in caring for women, whose pregnancy causes fear.
The placenta is an organ inside the uterus during pregnancy, with which the fetus is connected through the umbilical cord. It is necessary for the growth and development of the child.
Fetus is an unborn child after 10 weeks of gestation before birth.
The hollow vein is a large vein that drains blood into the right atrium. She returns the oxygen poor in the heart, from which she follows the lungs.
Placenta previa - the lower part of the placenta completely covers the cervix.
Prenatal care is a program for caring for a pregnant woman before the birth of a child.
Pre-eclampsia is a combination of symptoms unusual for pregnancy, including high blood pressure, swelling and changes in reflexes.
The umbilical cord is a rope that connects the placenta with the nurtured child. It takes the products of life and carbon dioxide from the child and brings oxygenated blood and nutrients.
Chadwick spot is a dark blue or purple color of the vagina and cervix during pregnancy.
Extension and scraping is a surgical procedure in which the cervix is opened and a tissue sample is cut or scraped out of the uterus.
Rhesus negative (Rh-negative) - absence of rhesus protein in the blood.
The generic problem is the problem that arose during childbirth.
Down's syndrome is a chromosomal disorder, in which the child has three 21 chromosomes (instead of two); is expressed in mental inferiority, distinct physical defects and other problems.
Complicated pregnancy is pregnancy with difficulties that require special attention of doctors, often - a specialist.
Group B streptococcal infection is an infection that occurs in the vagina, throat, or rectum of the mother (any of these organs can be infected). Can be dangerous for the child.
Braxton-Hicks contractions are irregular contractions of the uterus during pregnancy.
Trimester is a three-month period of time. Pregnancy is divided into 3 equal periods (trimester), each of which lasts about 13 weeks.
Pushing is the sensation of a future mother, when the baby moves inside the womb.
Morning sickness is nausea and vomiting, mainly during the first trimester of pregnancy. Indomitable vomiting of pregnant women.
The fallopian tube is a tube going from the uterus to the ovary. Chloasma is an increase in pigmentation or the spread of brown spots of irregular shape and size on the face or other parts of the body. Also called "pregnancy mask".
Chromosome - the formation, located in the cell nucleus and containing DNA. Through the chromosomes, genetic information is transmitted.
Chromosomal abnormalities are an abnormal number of chromosomes.
The black line (linia nigra) is a strongly pigmented line, often appearing during pregnancy; goes down the abdomen from the navel to the pubic region.
Eclampsia - convulsions and coma in a woman with preeclamice. Not associated with epilepsy.
The embryo is an organism in the early stages of development; in humans - from conception to the 10th week.
Embryonic period - the first 10 weeks of gestation.
Analyzes that the future mother and child will have to undergo
Alpha-fetoprotein is a substance produced by an unborn baby while it grows inside the uterus; is found in maternal blood and amniotic fluid. The indicator above the norm in maternal blood indicates that the fetus has neural tube defects.
Amniocentesis - processes during which a sample of an amniotic fluid is taken from the amniotic sac. The fluid is tested to determine genetic defects and the degree of development of the fetal lungs.
Analysis of multiple components - see the four-component test and the component test.
Urinalysis - an analysis for the presence of infection and the determination of sugar and protein in the urine.
An analysis for a family Mediterranean fever is a blood test designed for people from Armenia, Arabia and Turkey to determine the presence of a recessive gene. Primarily diagnosed in newborns, and treatment can be started immediately.
An analysis of the response to contractions is the fetal response to uterine contractions; used to determine the condition of the fetus.
Biophysical profile is the method of estimating the fetus before birth. HIV / AIDS test - to determine if a woman is a carrier of HIV or AIDS (can not be done without the knowledge and consent of a woman).
Genetic tests - various diagnostic tests and screening tests that determine if a married couple can have a child with genetic pathologies. Usually - part of the genetic consultation.
Diagnosis of pelvic organs - the doctor feels the internal organs of the small pelvis of a woman. Used to assess the size of the uterus at the beginning of pregnancy and allows the doctor to determine if the cervix has stretched and thinning before the end of pregnancy.
Doppler is a device that enhances the sounds of the heartbeat of the fetus so that the doctor and others can hear it.
Measurement of the abdomen is a measurement showing the growth of the baby in the uterus in prenatal consultations. It is measured from pubic symphysis to fundus. Too much or too small a size can mean problems.
Measurement of distance behind the neck - using ultrasound, the doctor determines the distance behind the neck of the child. Combined with a blood test, the result can determine if a woman can have a child with Down's syndrome.
Cervical cultures - a test for sexually transmitted diseases; when a check for cervical cancer is made, the sample can also be taken for checking the presence of chlamydia, the causative agent of gonorrhea and other infections.
Fetal Monitor is a device used for childbirth to listen and record heartbeats of the fetus. Monitoring the child inside the womb can be external (through the mother's belly) and internal (through the mother's vagina).
Monitoring of the uterus at home - contractions of the uterus of a pregnant woman are recorded at home and transmitted by phone to the doctor (no special devices are required). It is done to determine the degree of risk of premature birth.
Weight determination - weight is determined on each prenatal visit; too large or too small, the weight gained can indicate problems.
The definition of a blood group is a test for determining which group the woman's blood belongs to - A, B, AB or O.
Determination of blood pressure - high blood pressure seen during pregnancy means approaching the expected term of childbirth. Changes in blood pressure may indicate potential problems.
Definition of hereditary deafness - if one of the spouses had relatives with congenital deafness, the analysis can determine if she has a baby, before birth.
Passive analysis - an analysis of what movements of the child are felt by the mother or are observed by the doctor; they are recorded, like changes in the fetal heart rate. Used to assess the condition of the fetus.
Counting movements - record how often a woman feels the movements of her child; Used to assess the condition of the fetus. A complete blood test - a blood test for iron and pathogens in the mother's blood.
A sample of the horny hairs is a diagnostic test that can be done in the early stages of pregnancy to determine anomalies.
The PONY test is taken from inside the uterus, through the abdomen or through the cervix.
Reaction to contractions - mild contractions of the mother's uterus are caused; the palpitation of the fetus is recorded in response to them. Also called "analysis of the reaction to contractions."
IV Rhesus factor - a blood test to determine if a woman's blood is Rh-negative.
Tests - tests that allow you to look inside the body include ultrasound, x-ray, CT scans or CAT scans and magnetic resonance. Sonogram or sonography. Cordosentesis - fetal analysis for the determination of Rh factor, pathologies of blood and infections. Analysis for antibodies to hepatitis B - determines whether a pregnant woman has ever been infected with hepatitis B.
Glucose tolerance test - is done to assess the body's response to sugar. Blood is taken from the expectant mother 1 time or intervals after she drinks a solution of sugar.
A test for cervical cancer is a test in the early stages of pregnancy to determine cervical cancer.
The test for sugar in the blood - see Glucose Tolerance Test.
Test for syphilis - if a woman is sick with syphilis, begin treatment.
A group B streptococcal test can be taken closer to the end of pregnancy from the vagina or from the rectum of a woman. If the test is positive, they begin treatment immediately or during childbirth.
Rubella titres - a blood test for determining the presence of immunity to rubella (German measles).
A three-component test - an analysis of 3 blood components to determine pathology. Three tests include a test for alpha-fetoprotein, human chorion gonadotropin, and unbound estriol, a form of estrogen produced by the placenta.
Ultrasound (ultrasound) is a non-penetrating test showing the image of the fetus inside the uterus. Sound waves bounce off the fruit, forming an image.
A four-coconut test is an analysis of 4 blood components to determine pathology. Four tests include a test for alpha-fetoprotein, human chorion gonadotropin, unbound estriol and inhibin-A, chemical products of the ovaries and placenta.
Embryonic fibronectin (EFN) is a test for determining the probability of premature birth. Take a sample of vaginal discharge and cervical secretions; if EVN is present after 22 weeks, this indicates a risk of premature birth.
Embryoscopy is an analysis that allows a doctor through an embryoscope (an optical fiber device) to detect external pathologies and problems in the development of the fetus while he is inside the mother's womb.
Active delivery - when the cervix is stretched from 4 to 8 cm. Contractions usually last from 3 to 5 minutes.
Paracervix blockade - local anesthesia to relieve pain when stretching the cervix.
Vacuum extractor - a device sometimes used to ensure the exit of the fetal head during childbirth; Used to help with childbirth.
External turn is a procedure performed in late pregnancy, during which the doctor attempts to turn the child into a normal maternity position upside down.
Induced labor - when labor does not begin or a woman can not give birth to a child, give the medicine (oxytocin).
Caesarean section is the extraction of the child through the incision on the abdomen, in contrast to normal childbirth, when the child exits through the vagina.
Blood spots - unpronounced bloody discharge from the vagina in the late stages of pregnancy; often shortly before birth.
False births - contractions of the uterus without stretching the cervix.
Lochia - relaxation of the vagina after the release of the baby and the placenta.
Oxytocin is a medicine that causes uterine contractions; is used to induce or assist in childbirth. It can also be called "Pitocin". Also the hormone produced by the glands.
The Bishop score is a method used to predict the success of induced labor. It takes into account the stretching, thinning and position of the cervix. Evaluation is given for each criterion, and then they add up, and the amount the doctor can determine when it is best to induce labor.
Inverted position is the wrong position of the fetus. Buttocks or legs go to the delivery canal to the head.
Perineum is the area between the vagina and rectum. Position - a description of which part of the child first enters the delivery channel.
Buildings - after the birth of the child, the placenta and the membranes come out. See Placenta.
Preparations for childbirth - a woman went to the courses, because she knows what awaits her at birth. She can ask for an anesthetic medicine if she needs it.
Natural childbirth - childbirth, during which the mother remains conscious and gives birth to the child herself. Some people believe that with natural childbirth a woman should not ask for pain medication; but this is not true.
Pooden blockade - local anesthesia during childbirth. Rupture of the membranes - the release of fluid from the amniotic sac. Also called "waste water".
Early contractions - when a woman experiences regular contractions (one every 20 minutes, the frequency increases to one every 5 minutes) more often than 2 hours. The cervix is usually stretched from 3 to 4 cm.
Stretching - how open the cervix is before delivery. The fully stretched cervix has a diameter of about 10 cm.
Roddom is an institution specialized in the birth of children. Usually a woman gives birth and is restored after giving birth in one ward. It may be part of a hospital or a separate institution.
Childbirth is the process of getting the fetus out of the uterus.
Slime is the secret of the cervix; often appears immediately before childbirth.
Spinal birth - the pain of fights, felt in the lower back.
Contractions - contractions or stretching of the uterus, pushing the child out of it during childbirth.
Quiet labor - painless stretching of the cervix.
The tongs are a tool sometimes used to extract a child during childbirth; they are superimposed around the baby's head in the delivery canal to extract the child from there during the birth.
Enema is a liquid injected into the rectum to clean the intestine.
Epidural blockage is the type of anesthesia when the agent is injected into the area around the spine during childbirth.
Episiotomy - surgical cutting of the perineum (the area between the vagina and rectum). Used at delivery to prevent rupture of the vaginal and anus.
After the birth of the child
Bilirubin is a yellow or orange pigment.
Jaundice is the yellow coloration of the skin, sclera and deeper tissues of the body. It is caused by excess bilirubin.
Meconium is the first feces of a newborn; has a dark green or yellow color. It consists of epithelial cells, mucus and bile. His exit can occur before or during the birth or soon after it.
Colostrum is a yellow liquid produced by the mammary glands at first. Most often appears before the end of pregnancy. Its composition is different from milk produced later, with breastfeeding.
Swelling - filling with liquid; usually refers to breast enlargement in a nursing mother.
Evaluation Angara - an assessment of the child's reaction to birth and its viability. Takes 1 to 5 minutes after birth.
A pediatrician is a doctor specializing in the treatment of infants and children.
The postpartum period is a 6-week period after the birth of the child. Refers to the mother, not to the child.
Postpartum depression syndrome - several syndromes, including melancholy, postpartum depression and postpartum psychosis.
Expressing breast milk - hand-squeezing milk from the chest.
Anguish - mild depression in a woman after childbirth.
Medical expert editor
Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich
Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"
Other articles on the topic
The latest research relating Terms associated with pregnancy for future parents
A long experiment, conducted by world scientists, showed: myoma during pregnancy is not dangerous.
Babies, who were born in women with a deficiency of vitamin B 12, have an increased tendency to develop type 2 diabetes, as well as other metabolic diseases. Such conclusions were obtained by English scientists after the study.