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Progesterone in Pregnancy
Medical expert of the article
Progesterone in pregnancy is produced by the body in fairly large quantities, geometrically progressing during all months of bearing the baby, and dropping sharply only in the last week before giving birth.
Progesterone is one of the main female hormones that is synthesized by the ovaries and the adrenal cortex with the participation of a luteotropic hormone.
Progesterone in planning pregnancy
Without progesterone, pregnancy is impossible: it not only provides the implantation process itself, but also participates in the growth and formation of the fetus, and also supports pregnancy. A low level of this hormone can lead to underdevelopment of the embryo and spontaneous miscarriage.
Progesterone is synthesized in the female body and throughout the menstrual cycle: during ovulation in the ovaries yellow bodies are formed, which begin to produce the necessary hormone. For what?
Progesterone takes an active part in the implantation process, it allows the fetal egg to attach to the uterine walls, and also controls the intensity of the contractions of the uterus, preventing the probability of spontaneous abortion.
The level of progesterone usually rises in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, which creates favorable conditions and prepares the ground for the development of the embryo and the normal course of pregnancy.
In addition, progesterone also performs other functions in the body: it prevents the formation of fibrous cystic formations, favors the use of fatty tissues in order to release additional energy, stabilizes the level of glucose and the viscosity of the blood.
Progesterone is an important element of a woman's reproductive health, both during the planning period, during pregnancy, and throughout her life.
How does progesterone affect pregnancy?
Progesterone supports pregnancy throughout its extent. It promotes the transition of the endometrium into a state of decidual tissue, which has the ability to attach an embryo to itself and ensure its full development. Progesterone controls the tone of the walls of the uterus, and also strengthens the muscles of the uterine neck, which significantly reduces the risk of miscarriage.
The decrease in the amount of progesterone during gestation leads to irreversible consequences - the termination of pregnancy. It is believed that the content in the blood of progesterone in an amount less than 7 ng / ml (from 4 to 10 weeks) is the indicator of an abrupt termination of pregnancy. The level of this hormone in the blood should be increased throughout the period of gestation of the baby.
The hormone progesterone in the first trimester of pregnancy enhances the production of the necessary substances for nutrition and fetal life. The level of the hormone increases with the course of pregnancy and by the last weeks reaches more than 400 ng / ml.
The norm of progesterone in pregnancy
With successful fertilization of the egg and the normal functioning of the yellow body, progesterone will begin to be synthesized at an accelerated rate in the early stages of pregnancy. The production of the hormone after 16 weeks of gestation almost completely falls on the placenta of the fetus, which at this time can already fully fulfill its functions.
During each month, the level of the hormone will inevitably increase: by its number, the doctor can determine the condition of the placental shell, the absence of pathology of embryo development. Usually, women take an analysis for progesterone during pregnancy, not just once, to be able to control the amount of the hormone.
Indicators of the progesterone level in the blood in different laboratories may be slightly different, so when passing the tests, check the compliance of the indicators with your doctor or directly in the laboratory. The most common indicator scheme is:
- The first trimester is 11.2-90.0 ng / ml
- The second trimester is 25.6-89.4 ng / ml
- The third trimester is 48.4-422.5 ng / ml
To hand over the analysis of a blood on hormones follows in the morning on an empty stomach. If you are taking any medications, be sure to inform the laboratory about this, as some medications may distort the real progesterone values.
Elevated progesterone during pregnancy can signal the development of any pathology in the body, for example, violations in the formation of the placental shell.
Low progesterone during pregnancy can signal the following problems in the body:
- threat of abortion;
- the threat of a frozen pregnancy;
- decreased functionality of the placenta;
- defects and deficiencies in the development of the fetus;
- at a later date, creates a threat of masturbation of pregnancy.
Pregnancy with low progesterone is supported by the appointment of hormonal drugs that stabilize the level of the hormone in the blood.
17-HE progesterone in pregnancy
What is 17-one progesterone? It is a metabolite, an intermediate product of the biochemical reaction in the synthesis of progesterone. Its development occurs in the ovaries, adrenal glands and placenta. Very often, women are worried about the high rates of this hormone. However, we can reassure you: the level of 17-he progesterone can fluctuate in fairly large ranges, and there is no universally recognized norm in the state of pregnancy. The laboratories themselves can give a relative definition of the level of hydroxyprogesterone, however, this is only an approximate estimate of the assay.
The causes of an increase in 17-one progesterone in pregnancy - in a simultaneous increase in the concentration of conventional progesterone. 17-Hydroxyprogesterone is also synthesized by the placenta, but from the second trimester begins its development by the adrenal embryo.
Elevated levels of hydroxyprogesterone are not considered pathologies. When the amount of normal progesterone is among the acceptable parameters, there is no need to worry about exceeding the level of 17-one progesterone.
Rates of progesterone by weeks of pregnancy
The hormone progesterone increases gradually during the weeks of pregnancy. Strictly control it is not necessary, the doctor sends the woman for analysis only if there are suspicions of deviations from the norm in one direction or another.
- at 1 week of pregnancy - 11,2> ng / ml
- at the 2nd week of pregnancy - 11.2> ng / ml
- at the 3rd week of pregnancy - 15.0> ng / ml
- at the 4th week of pregnancy - 18.8 ng / ml
- at the 5th week of pregnancy - 19.0-22.0 ng / ml
- at the 6th week of pregnancy - 20.0-32.0 ng / ml
- at week 7 of pregnancy - 30.0-37.0 ng / ml
- at the 8th week of pregnancy - 30.0-39.0 ng / ml
- at the 9th week of pregnancy - 33.0-45.0 ng / ml
- at the 10th week of pregnancy - 38.0-50.0 ng / ml
Progesterone in the second trimester of pregnancy continues to increase, reaching a mark of 90 ng / ml.
When decoding the indicators, be sure to take into account the fact that only your doctor can evaluate such analyzes on the basis of data on a particular laboratory where blood was shed, as the norms for each research center may be different.
Progesterone in pregnancy of twins at an early pregnancy and up to 7-8 weeks may increase according to usual indices, regardless of the availability of more fruits.
Preparations of progesterone in pregnancy
Drugs containing progesterone can be prescribed mainly with a decrease in the production of progesterone, as well as as preventive and therapeutic measures aimed at reducing the risk of a threatening spontaneous abortion.
With insufficient function of the yellow body in the first trimester, progesterone is administered daily or a day before the full elimination of the danger of interruption of gestation. With the so-called "habitual" spontaneous abortions hormonal drugs are used until the fourth month of pregnancy.
Progesterone preparations are usually prescribed up to 36 weeks of gestation, then the use of such medications is stopped.
The most common progesterone medications today are dufastone, utrozhestan and, in fact, progesterone (its analogue - injectin) - a solution for injections. These drugs can be prescribed in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, the appropriateness of administration, as well as the dosage and treatment regimen prescribed by the doctor. Self-medication by hormonal means is absolutely unacceptable!
How to increase progesterone during pregnancy?
Increase the content of progesterone in the blood in several ways.
The first, the most effective and acceptable is the drug method. The doctor may prescribe one or more progesterone medications according to the indications:
- oily solution of progesterone - apply 10-25 mg daily or the day before the disappearance of the threat of miscarriage;
- injection - injection solution, inject 0.5-2.5 ml of 1% solution daily or every other day;
- progesterone capsules, can be used either orally or intra-vaginally. Assign 200-400 mg orally every 6-8 hours, the maintenance dose is 100-200 mg three times a day. Intra-vaginal use involves the administration of the drug at a dosage of 100-200 mg per reception every 12 hours until 12 weeks of gestation;
- dyufaston - a synthetic analog of progesterone (dydrogesteron), appoint 10 mg every 8 hours. Duration of treatment is determined by the doctor individually, the drug can be used until 14-20 weeks of pregnancy.
Alternative means to increase the level of progesterone in the blood exist, but their use during pregnancy can have unpredictable consequences, so the possibility of using herbs and infusions should evaluate your doctor.
If the level of progesterone is not critically low, it can be increased with a special diet. The daily diet of a woman should include a sufficient number of legumes, nuts, dairy products, various types of meat, eggs, soy, hard cheeses. And the most important condition is not to worry! After all, together with you, your future child is going through too, which does not need anything at all.
Whatever the result of your analysis of progesterone in pregnancy, you should not make hasty conclusions on your own. Go to the doctor for an appointment, he will explain everything to you. Most likely, after visiting the doctor you will not have any cause for concern! Modern medicine is able to control the level of hormones for the normal course of pregnancy.