Pregnancy and menstruation

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 19.11.2021

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The menstrual cycle is controlled by hormones that prepare a woman's organism for conception and bearing each month. Monthly called the regular discharge of blood once a month because of the rejection of the endometrium, lining the uterus, in the absence of fertilization.

The duration of the monthly cycle is 21-35 days, for adolescent girls it can reach 45 days. The first half of the cycle occurs with an increase in the level of estrogen responsible for bone strength and active growth of the endometrium, which is the place for embryo implantation. Ovulation or the release of the ovule from the follicle occurs approximately in the middle of the cycle. Ideally, this is the 14th day, the middle of the monthly cycle with the duration of the cycle itself of 28 days. The egg moves into the uterine tube and further into the uterus. The most favorable conditions for conception are three days before and the last day of ovulation. If the sperm is introduced into the egg, pregnancy sets in and there are no monthly ones. If conception does not occur, then the egg dies, the hormonal background decreases and the inner layer of the uterus is rejected. There comes another menstruation.

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Whether there can be monthly and pregnancy simultaneously?

A future mother in the first month may not even suspect about her new position. The fact is that conception is roughly on the middle of the cycle, the fetal egg is required from seven to fifteen days for implantation into the endometrium of the uterus, and the hormonal background during this period may not be in time to change. Or the onset of fetal development coincides with a decrease in the level of estrogen, so there are spotting. From the stability of the hormonal background depends the ability of the embryo to settle down, and pregnancy and menstrual - the situation prevalent in the first period of gestation.

Still, one should distinguish between ordinary menstruation and spotting when fertilization occurs, which represent minor, smearing efflux. The presence of the usual monthly on the background of the birth of a new life is an alarming signal, often indicating problems of embryonic development, the threat of miscarriage, pathology of pregnancy. Habitual monthly and pregnancy simultaneously on any term are an occasion for anxiety and the reference to the gynecologist. Provocative, dangerous factors are: 

  • in the body of a woman, an insufficient amount of progesterone is produced to ensure the normal course of pregnancy; 
  • the level of androgen (male hormone) is greatly overestimated, which contributes to the detachment of the fetal egg; 
  • poor blood supply of the fetal egg at an unfavorable implant site, leading to rejection; 
  • genetic causes that stop the development of the embryo, causing a spontaneous termination of pregnancy; 
  • ectopic pregnancy.

All these situations create a real threat of miscarriage, and a timely visit to the doctor and accurate implementation of his recommendations can serve as a guarantee of pregnancy.

Pregnancy and the monthly and negative test

Not the onset of another menstruation - a clear sign of the origin of the conception. Most of the fair sex use an express test to confirm the fact of pregnancy. But what if there is a suspicion of pregnancy and there are spotting? Menstrual bleeding does not affect the quality of the test that reacts to the hormone of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), the amount of which initially increases in the blood, and then in the urine. The plausibility of the result will depend on the duration of pregnancy and the sensitivity of the test itself. The most accurate data can be obtained from the analysis of blood at an early pregnancy.

Situations when a woman celebrates pregnancy and a monthly, and a negative test, indicate errors: 

  • test with low sensitivity (check result in a week); 
  • strictly follow the instructions for use (conduct the test in the morning, use the first portion of urine); 
  • Do not take a lot of fluids at night, which lowers the level of hCG and reduces the reliability of the result; 
  • observe the rules of sterility.

In the first months of bearing a child, there may be a discharge like menstrual periods, so visit a gynecologist.

Pregnancy and delay of menstruation

Specialists identify the signs of the onset of conception on a questionable and probable nature.

To doubtful early signs include: 

  • morning nausea / vomiting, change of taste preferences; 
  • changes even perversions in olfactory sensations; 
  • change of psycho-emotional background - mood swings, increased irritability, drowsy condition, dizziness; 
  • pigments on the face, white belly line, around the nipples; 
  • frequent urge to urinate; 
  • abdominal growth in volume, which is caused by intestinal swelling; 
  • engorgement / pouring of mammary glands.

Probable early signs include: 

  • amenorrhea - delay in menstruation; 
  • the mammary glands are enlarged, tense; 
  • on the mucous membrane of the vagina and the cervix of the uterus, a blue skin is revealed; 
  • the size, shape and consistency of the uterus change closer to the fifth-sixth week of pregnancy.

It should be noted that pregnancy and delay in menstruation, as well as changes in the volume of the mammary glands and uterus can be observed in the absence of fertilization. Therefore, it is necessary to make a test (works from the first day of a delay with a regular cycle) or to pass a blood test (in the first days of the alleged delay). You can also conduct an ultrasound diagnosis, which allows you to detect a fetal egg a week after the delay.

Confirmed pregnancy and menstrual periods are considered as a sign of interruption of bearing in the early term.

Signs of a month and pregnancy

About half of the women around the world are familiar with the concept of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Discomfort sensations are as individual as each woman is unique.

Specialists attribute PMS to a set of disorders of the neuro-psychic, vegetative-vascular, metabolic-endocrine nature. The most common cause of the problem is the imbalance of female hormones - estrogen and progesterone, as a result: abortion, incorrect contraception, genital diseases, pathology during pregnancy, etc. A number of doctors point out the relationship between PMS and the problems of water-salt metabolism, the presence of avitaminosis, and the lack of vitamins in the female body.

Common signs of PMS: 

  • sleep disturbance (insomnia, "broken" condition during the day); 
  • a feeling of nausea, vomiting, bloating; 
  • soreness / swelling of the mammary glands; 
  • body weight increase; 
  • painful pulling syndrome in the pelvic region, lower back; 
  • behavioral changes - irritation, depressive state, isolation, etc.

From the above, we can conclude that the signs of a month and pregnancy in the early term are identical. Therefore, if the next monthly does not occur, there is a suspicion of pregnancy. Independently determine the fact of fertilization is problematic, it is better to visit a gynecologist.

Pain and period of pregnancy

Pregnancy and menstruation are mutually exclusive concepts. However, a woman in the position can observe a slight discharge at the beginning of gestation. Provoke such a deviation from the norm: hormonal failures, the process of introducing a fetal egg into the uterine cavity or other easily remediable situations (provided timely advice of the gynecologist). In the first months, a woman may also feel minor discomfort in the lower abdomen and lower back, as in menstruation. Beginning changes in the body lead to drawing pains, which are considered the norm during the period of implantation of the fetal egg.

The presence of pain and menstruation during pregnancy is a bad sign. First, the cause may be the development of an embryo outside the uterine cavity. Do not delay the visit to the doctor, especially in the presence of dizziness, nausea, a pre-stupor condition, severe bleeding, acute and cramping pain syndrome. Similar feelings are observed in the case of miscarriage. The pain is crampy, aching, with a return to the lumbar region and is accompanied by a bloody discharge.

Pain syndrome and the presence of blood may indicate premature separation of the placenta, which is fraught with miscarriage. Call for emergency medical attention to save life for you and your baby.

Pregnancy with a spiral and monthly

An intrauterine device is used as an effective method of contraception. The possibility of fertilization in this case is 1-2%, and the cause is the exit of the spiral from the body of the uterus. The contraceptive ability of the helix is based on the application of micro abrasions on the inner layer of the uterus. Therefore, after fertilization, the probability of spontaneous miscarriage is high. In addition to the increased tone, it is possible to attach the fetal egg outside the uterine endometrium. The presence of an intrauterine device spasm at times increases the appearance of an ectopic pregnancy. The development of the embryo in the immediate vicinity of the spiral will also lead to the termination of pregnancy.

Pregnancy with a spiral and monthly is quite a likely fact. Only the months are more correctly called bleeding, and conception occurs either outside the uterine cavity, or the attachment site of the embryo will be unsuccessful, contributing to the early termination of pregnancy. The use of the intrauterine device leaves the body of the uterus ajar, which facilitates the unobstructed penetration into its cavity of pathogenic microflora.

Monthly cycle and pregnancy

Take for example the female cycle in 28 days. The highest probability of conception falls on the interval 10-17 days (the so-called "fertile window"). Recall that the first day of the menstrual cycle - this is the time of the appearance of blood secretions. The chances of getting pregnant before and after this period are almost zero. The possibility of fertilization is higher after menstruation with a peak in the middle of the cycle.

Until recently, such calculations were widely used by women as a "natural contraceptive method." Modern medicine calls into question this method for obvious reasons: 

  • often in women (25-35 years), even with a stable cycle, spontaneous ovulation occurs, which has been proved by numerous studies; 
  • the possibility of getting pregnant persists during menstruation; 
  • As a result of hormonal disruptions, cycle disturbances are often observed (causes - stress, overstrain, change of residence, etc.).

The monthly cycle and pregnancy are physiological processes closely connected and controlled by hormones. In the first phase of the cycle, for which follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) responds, the follicle ripens and the uterine mucosa is renewed. FSG activates the production of estrogen in the ovaries and the maturation of the follicles, one of which will become dominant (in it the egg will ripen). When the egg matured, the level of FSH decreases when the signal from the hypothalamus reaches the pituitary gland. The ovulation stage begins and the production of luteinizing hormone (LH) begins. The follicle bursts and from it comes an egg ready for fertilization. The second phase of the menstrual cycle proceeds under the influence of LH forming the yellow body (it produces progesterone) at the site of the broken follicle. Progesterone prepares the endometrium of the uterus for conception, increasing the flow of fluid and nutrients, reducing the contractile activity of the uterus. After the introduction of the fetal egg as a result of fertilization, the yellow body is transformed into the body of pregnancy. If conception does not occur, the concentration of progesterone decreases, the uterine mucosa is rejected and output outside with menstrual bleeding.

Breast during pregnancy and menstruation

Each woman is individual and the signs of the coming conception in each case have their own characteristics. However, there are common distinctive symptoms, among which the main role is assigned to the delay in menstruation.

As is known, under the influence of hormones estrogen and progesterone are pregnancy and menstrual periods. Hormonal changes in the body of a woman lead to uncomfortable sensations in the chest. An increase in the mammary glands, an intense influx of blood to them increases sensitivity, often causes pain syndromes.

Since the breasts during pregnancy and menstruation undergo similar changes, it is problematic to distinguish one state from another. Before the onset of menstruation, there is pronounced puffiness, soreness of the nipples. With regard to the period of the beginning of gestation, in addition to pain, pulling sensation, often in the mammary glands a venous network appears, the nipples and the zone around them acquire a hypersensitivity and a darker color.

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Sex and menstruation during pregnancy

The question of intimate relationships between spouses at the moment of waiting for the baby is decided individually. Important recommendations are the gynecologist. In the case of medical prohibition, it is better to avoid physical proximity to eliminate problems with bearing.

The onset of pregnancy takes place in conditions of colossal hormonal changes that can reduce the secretion of the vagina, increase the vulnerability of the walls, and lead to a drop in immunity. If you do not suffer from toxicosis and sex remains an important part of your life, you should use a condom to prevent the penetration of pathogens. In the first months of gestation, intimate intimacy can provoke miscarriage. Prohibitive factors can be hypertension of the uterus, bloody discharge from the vagina. The increased sensitivity of the mammary glands will require partners to pay more attention to mutual sensations.

Sex and menstruation during pregnancy should always be discussed at a doctor's appointment, which can introduce some restrictions, adjust the degree of sexual activity and other recommendations. The appearance of pain syndromes, bloody discharge is a dangerous signal in the first trimester, requiring a mandatory gynecological examination.

Unwanted sex is considered when there is a threat of abortion, with a presentation / low anchorage or a risk of rejection of the placenta. If the pregnancy comes and monthly in the form of small secretions are supported by the results of tests for the presence of infection, both spouses must undergo treatment.

Sexual intercourse in later terms is usually not acceptable. The composition of the seminal fluid includes substances that stimulate generic activity.

Ectopic pregnancy and menstruation

The development of pregnancy outside the uterine cavity can occur in the tube, ovary or peritoneum. Medicine is also known for a combined pregnancy, when part of the fetal egg is located in the uterus, and the other - outside it. The number of tubal pregnancies reaches 95% of all cases.

Speaking about the causes of such pathologies, physicians most often indicate the presence of adhesions in the fallopian tubes. The ovum after fertilization is not able in view of the large size to bypass the obstruction, which prevents penetration into the uterine cavity. Embryonic development continues in the tube until the space allows, after which miscarriage or rupture of the fallopian tube is observed.

Pregnancy outside the uterus is always difficult to diagnose at an early age. Do not help either the ultrasound examination or gynecological examination. Ectopic pregnancy and monthly, as well as the clinical picture described by the patient - are related to secondary signs of pathology recognition. Symptoms of embryonic development outside the uterus include: 

  • pain syndrome of the lower abdomen; 
  • discomfort in the rectum; 
  • painful intercourse; 
  • the discharge of blood from the vagina, the absence of normal menstruation.

The presence of fluid in the posterior fornix, as well as a positive reaction to chorionic gonadotropin, the indices of which are stable in time, is an occasion to suspect ectopic pregnancy.

Pregnancy and monthly, or rather profuse bleeding, accompanied by a severe pain syndrome leading to fainting, can result in a fatal outcome. The rupture of the fallopian tube takes place at lightning speed, so you should quickly call for emergency medical attention.

trusted-source[8], [9], [10], [11], [12]

Pregnancy before and after the month

The menstrual cycle is divided into three phases: follicular, ovulatory and luteal, each of which changes the structure and functional characteristics of the endometrium of the uterus and ovaries. The first stage is preparation for possible fertilization, the second (1-2 days) is favorable for conception. Pregnancy and menstrual periods are under the strict guidance of hormones. Therefore, the development of the third phase of the cycle is characterized by the creation of favorable conditions for the implantation of the fetal egg, if fertilization has occurred, or by the rejection of the epithelium of the uterus with the appearance of blood if the pregnancy has not occurred.

The probability of conception is maximal in the period of ovulation, the onset of which can not always be calculated independently due to the irregularity of the monthly cycle. Help comes ultrasound diagnosis and daily baseline temperature measurements. The latter requires a woman's attentiveness, even pedantry, that in the era of employment, not every woman can be a force.

As it turned out, everything is possible in medical practice: pregnancy before and after the month, even during menstrual bleeding. Possibility of conception after menstruation is increased by the following factors: 

  • a cycle with a duration of less than 21 days; 
  • the release of blood for more than 7 days increases the possibility of the release of a mature egg in the last days of discharge; 
  • the absence of a regular cycle, when to predict the period of ovulation is unrealistic; 
  • presence of intermenstrual bleeding; 
  • phenomenon of spontaneous ovulation.

It is believed that the first two days of menstruation are the most "safe". At the same time, the vitality of the spermatozoon in the female body should be considered up to seven days.

Irregular cycle of menstruation and pregnancy

According to statistical data, about 5% of the female population has an unsteady menstrual cycle. Councils of doctors in this situation apply to an active lifestyle, reducing stressful moments, taking special contraceptives or hormones that regulate the monthly.

An irregular cycle of menstruation and pregnancy is a delicate matter with a possible favorable resolution of no more than 20%. The main difficulty in planning conception is the inability to predict ovulation due to the jumps in the monthly cycle. According to doctors, with an increase in the age of such women's chances are even lower. So in the interval 33-44 years the probability of fertilization does not exceed 13%.

It is interesting that some doctors recommend regular and frequent sex when planning pregnancy, while others suggest that with the increase in the intensity of sexual activity, the activity of spermatozoa decreases. Whatever they say, and others, conception is considered "the gift of heaven", and a passionate desire to become a parent and the ability to give love are doing their little miracles.

Irregular periods and pregnancy

About 40% of all cases of female infertility are associated with irregular menstruation, its absence or pathological bleeding. With these problems, ovulation does not occur. Similar anomalies are called anovulation and are treated with drugs from infertility. As practice shows, these pathologies of the menstrual cycle can not be solved without checking the functions of the thyroid gland, adrenal gland and pituitary gland.

With an irregular cycle, one can know about the onset of ovulation only by measuring the basal temperature. This is indicated by an increase in the value of rectal temperature, so on the same day next month, standard tests should be scheduled for the detection of ovulation. A more reliable method for determining ovulation is ultrasound, which is used to monitor the growth and rupture of the follicle. Sometimes this is the only way you can plan to conceive.

Pregnancy and menstruation are inseparable processes. The beginning of menstruation testifies to the readiness of the female organism to conceive, bear and give birth, and the irregularity of the cycle complicates and pushes the joy of motherhood. Problems with menstruation are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome, which occurs as a result of hormonal imbalance. In this case, there is an increase in the presence of cysts on the ovaries. An important factor is the presence of stress in the life of a woman.

Irregular monthly and pregnancy is a problem for gynecologist and endocrinologist doctors. If the desire to become a mother is great, then the simple way - regular sex life without fear, nervousness and doubt - can help.

Lean month and pregnancy

Few of the modern women of the fair sex can boast an ideal hormonal background. Failures of the monthly cycle arise due to frequent emotional or physical overloads, malnutrition, changing time zones, stressful situations, etc. The disorders associated with hormones, the onset of pregnancy and the months are directly related. If the amount of progesterone is not enough, then there is a risk of detachment of the fetal egg. The situation is being adjusted by taking medications.

At the beginning of gestation, women sometimes notice a slight discharge, which gynecologists associate with the moment of introduction of the embryo into the uterine mucosa. Lean month and pregnancy in the early term is an acceptable situation, if it is not accompanied by pain and controlled by a doctor. The cause of this phenomenon can serve as the presence of polyps on the surface of the endometrium, irregularity of the mucous layer, a number of diseases (eg, endometriosis), etc.

Slight discharge of scarlet or brownish color may indicate fetal development outside the uterine cavity. This condition is dangerous for a woman, requires surgical intervention, so if any type of outflow from the vagina should consult a gynecologist.

Abundant months and pregnancy

According to gynecologists, pregnancy and menstrual - incompatible phenomena. If there are bleeding after conception, they are called bleeding. Sparing, scant expirences at the beginning of gestation occur in half of pregnant women and, as a rule, are not pathology. Similar deviations from the norm cause hormonal disorders, damage to the endometrium during the introduction of the fetal egg, overexertion and other factors.

Inadmissible are the plentiful monthly and pregnancy on a background of the expressed painful syndrome. Such symptoms indicate: 

  • spontaneous abortion - allocation abundant, often scarlet, backed up by lower abdominal pain and lower back; 
  • pregnancy fading - the embryo stops development due to genetic pathologies; 
  • the germination of an embryo outside the uterine cavity - the discharge can be strong (with a break in the fallopian tube) or absent altogether. The pain is cramping, the attack leads to a loss of consciousness and a sharp decrease in pressure; 
  • placental presentation - placing the placenta closer to the internal throat is often accompanied by severe bleeding, threatening miscarriage.

trusted-source[13], [14], [15], [16]

Lack of monthly and pregnancy

Long periods without menstruation or amenorrhea - does not always indicate problems of gynecological, endocrine or neurological nature. An example of a physiological variant of the norm will be the period of gestation, lactation, puberty and menopause.

Distinguish primary, when menstruation was not observed before 16 years, and secondary amenorrhea - delay up to six months or more in women of childbearing age without the presence of fertilization. The cause of the absence of menstruation can be: genetic abnormalities, disruption of the pituitary gland, brain and hypothalamus, diets, increased physical or emotional stress, endocrine problems, etc.

Absence of menstruation and pregnancy is a task, which is addressed by a gynecologist and endocrinologist. Complications of a cycle violation: 

  • infertility; 
  • early detection of age-related diseases against a background of estrogen deficiency - osteoporosis, diabetes, cardiovascular problems; 
  • increased risk of cancers of the genital area; 
  • at the onset of pregnancy - the threat of miscarriage at the beginning of gestation, premature labor, diabetes in pregnancy, preeclampsia.

Monthly with clots and pregnancy

Pregnancy and menstruation are mutually exclusive concepts; therefore, if any kind of spotting is found, it is better to visit a gynecologist.

Monthly with clots and pregnancy are an occasion for immediate treatment to the doctor. Such bleeding may be a harbinger of miscarriage. Thus allocation of scarlet color with the expressed painful syndrome, delicacy, temperature, possible vomiting.

For the presence of a hematoma, which provokes the detachment of the fetal egg, brownish discoloration will be indicated. Excesses are smearing, clots can also be present.

Pain of the cramping type is inherent in spontaneous abortion. The process causes bleeding with clots or fragments of tissue, which can occur in the first weeks of gestation.

With the fading of pregnancy can open profuse bleeding with dense inclusions.

Bleeding of a dark color with clots on the background of abdominal pain and tonicity of the uterus is a common pattern of placental peeling. Fortunately, complete placental rejection is rare.

Pregnancy and menstruation cause anxiety for expectant mothers, and a timely visit to the gynecologist helps to avoid unnecessary nervousness and problems with bearing.

What if I have a pregnancy and go on a period?

According to gynecologists, pregnancy and menstruation are incompatible things. Bloody discharge in the process of gestation doctors refer to bleeding, which requires mandatory examination and identification of its causes.

Progesterone is called a "pregnancy hormone" that helps the embryo to settle down in the mother's body. With his deficiency after conception, there may be spotting that threatens the termination of pregnancy. Timely appeal to the gynecologist allows you to eliminate the violation of progesterone and give birth to a healthy baby.

  • Cases, when pregnancy has come and go monthly, are also explained: 
  • not successful attachment of the embryo in the uterine cavity (there is fibroids, endometriosis, etc.); 
  • In the process of implantation of the fetal egg, minor damage to the endometrium occurred; 
  • a woman has a surplus of male hormones (hyperandrogenia), as a result of which the fetal egg exfoliates; 
  • as a result of pathologies of fetal development, ectopic pregnancy; 
  • At the origin of two embryos, there was a rejection of one of them.

Presence of smearing or abundant blood discharge from the vagina, especially against the background of severe pain (of any nature - pulling, cramping, girdling) requires an immediate visit to the gynecologist or an emergency call for medical care at home. Some conditions, like rupture of the uterine tube as a result of embryo development outside the uterus, are most dangerous. Therefore, immediate response and surgical intervention is necessary.

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