How can you prevent an unwanted pregnancy?

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 20.10.2021

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Of course, the most simple and reliable method, which excludes the occurrence of pregnancy in 100% of cases, is a complete lack of sex. Somewhat less reliable is the use of a condom. The condom also protects against infection with sexually transmitted diseases. But, unlike the first method, it is no longer so reliable. First, a condom can jump off at the most inopportune moment, secondly, it can tear (or "in the process", or when putting on), and, finally, it can be defective, that is, with a hole. In addition, it somewhat reduces the acuity of sensations, both in men and in women (for good reason there is an aphorism: "Having sex in a condom is like sniffing flowers in a gas mask"). Therefore, there is another way of male contraception - an interrupted sexual intercourse. But he has his shortcomings. First, for this, a man must have a good control over his sensations and even better - feel a partner. Otherwise, or he will not have time to "jump out" before ejaculation, or leave a partner unsatisfied. Secondly, even before ejaculation, along with the secret of the Cooper glands (these glands, like Bartholin's, secrete a moisturizing secret), a number of spermatozoa, which may be enough for fertilization, can enter the vagina.

This method is not so harmless. With incompetent, but often used, it can lead to sexual weakness (impotence) in men, dull sexual feelings in women. Therefore, this method can only be offered to experienced lovers who know each other well. In this case, the man first brings his partner to orgasm, and then completes his own orgasm with ejaculation outside the vagina partner. Then the sexual act will be at least effective enough.

A female condom should exactly match the size of the neck and tightly cover it. Therefore, the doctor-gynecologist must wear and remove the cap. And you need to shoot it once a month - because of the monthly. Thus, you need to visit the gynecologist twice a month - once to put the cap, and the second - to remove. In addition, the cap increases the risk of erosion of the cervix.

The female condom is two soft rings, connected together by a tube of polyurethane, which repeats the shape of the vagina. One end is sealed tightly. A smaller ring with a blind bottom is put on the cervix, like a cap, and a wider ring is located on the outer part of the vagina. This tool has not yet gained wide popularity and, probably, will not soon acquire, because, firstly, it is quite expensive, and secondly, the secretion of the vagina and Bartholin glands is disrupted.

In addition, a female condom needs extra lubrication. Well, the sensation of a woman (more precisely, their almost complete absence) is not the last argument for refusing this remedy.

From other methods of contraception, female cervical caps, intrauterine device and hormonal contraceptives are known.

Neck cap does not prevent the moisture of the vagina and does not require additional lubrication with frictions.

Hormonal oral contraceptives are much more preferable. They are similar to the natural female hormones estradiolui progesterone. Oral contraceptives are single-phase, two-phase and three-phase. You need to take them regularly, without missing any recommended medication, otherwise the effect does not come (you can get pregnant). Women sometimes refuse to take hormonal drugs because of fear of getting better. Indeed, the first such drugs had this and some other (nausea, mammary gland enlargement) side effects. Modern oral contraceptives are deprived of this. However, they also have peculiarities. Women who start taking these drugs should know that intermenstrual bleeding and some changes in their well-being may occur within the first month after starting oral contraceptives, but these symptoms are short-lived. Smoking women, as well as those over thirty-five years of age, should take these drugs with caution, as they slightly increase blood pressure and change blood coagulation properties, which increases the risk of a stroke or heart attack.

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Use of hormonal tablets

Sometimes gynecologists prescribe hormonal contraceptives just to give a "rest" to the ovaries, and then, after their abolition, pregnancy usually comes easier. And the probability of pregnancy in the first month after drug cancellation increases many times! In addition, the probability of the birth of twins increases 1.5-2 times. So taking birth control pills is a fairly common method of treating certain types of infertility.

Many believe that after taking hormonal tablets, hair begins to grow heavily and an acne appears.

Nothing like this! Some of these drugs, on the contrary, changing the hormonal background of a woman, normalize the functions of metabolism - and acne disappears. So sometimes these drugs are prescribed and for the purpose of treating acne.

As for hair growth, it is true that the first generation of hormonal contraceptive preparations contained too high a concentration of hormones, which led to increased hairiness. Modern preparations do not only not cause hair growth, but on the contrary, cause their thinning, which leads to a decrease in "fluffiness". In addition, hormonal contraceptives are a preventive measure that prevents the occurrence of ovarian cancer. When they are taken (naturally, recommended by a gynecologist), the risk of this disease decreases by almost 50%.

Exceptions are tablets used for emergency contraception (for example, postinor). They contain much more hormones than in conventional oral contraceptives, designed to be taken within a month. This is understandable! They are used when the sex occurred suddenly, and the woman did not have time to prepare. But they are designed for a single reception, not for daily use! Therefore, if "sudden" sex occurs every day or every other day, take a regular oral contraceptive, after consulting with your gynecologist.

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