The mechanism of action of topical retinoids, in particular, retinol - a bioactive form of vitamin A - is due to the ability of their molecules to penetrate the epidermis and bind to specific nucleic receptors of cells (RAR-gamma and RXR-alpha) to form paired heterodimers. The heterodimeric complex combines with the elements of DNA that regulate the activity of its transcription, and the program of differentiation of the cells of the dermis changes.
As a result, after applying a face cream with retinol, the proliferation of cells of the papillary layer of the skin becomes active, leading to a thickening of the epidermis; increases the synthesis of tissue enzymes that prevent the premature death of keratinocytes; thickens the horny layer of the skin; increases the production of glycosaminoglycans (compounds that retain moisture in the skin).
In the presence of acne, retinol reduces the activity of the sebaceous gland cells and the adhesion of keratin in the follicles, which leads to a decrease in skin rashes. And the proliferation of dermis cells creates favorable conditions for the restoration of its outer layer.
In addition, new skin cells can produce collagen proteins I and III types. And due to the blocking of UV-induced activation of the nuclear factors of transcription of AP-1 and NF-kB, retinol and all retinoids slow down the synthesis of skin pigment melanin.
Cream with retinol for the face from acne and acne Isotrexin (Isotrex), in addition to isotretinoin (isomer of tretinoin), contains the antibiotic erythromycin, which causes the death of Propionibacterium acnes, a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium involved in the appearance of acne.