In the living organism, every moment there is a lot of chemical transformations - complex molecules break down into simpler substances, complex molecules are synthesized from simple substances, the energy released in chemical reactions turns into thermal energy or energy of muscle movement, etc. If all these reactions proceeded spontaneously, the body would turn into a flask of an alchemist, ready to explode every second. Some reactions would have gone terribly slow, while others, on the contrary, would quickly pass into an uncontrolled explosion. For the crown to ensure that the reactions are carried out in the right sequence, at the right speed and without the formation of by-products, special molecules, enzymes, are observed.
The enzyme plays the role of an experienced matchmaker who arranges marriages where, in the natural course of events, there would be no chance of success. Each enzyme specializes in a single reaction. In the course of the reaction, the enzyme is not consumed and, by conducting the charge molecule along the chemical transformation path, eventually returns to its original state. In the skin there are a number of enzymes, on the basis of which its appearance depends.
- antioxidant enzymes that protect the skin from free radicals, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), lutathione peroxidase;
- tyrosinase, necessary for the synthesis of melanin;
- enzymes that break down the connections between horny scales in the stratum corneum (the speed of the scaling of scales from the surface of the skin depends on the activity of these enzymes);
- enzymes that destroy the intercellular substance of the dermis, - collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase, etc.
- reductase - an enzyme that converts testosterone into an active form (dihydrotestosterone).
The intensity of the secretion of the sebaceous glands depends on the activity of this enzyme. Typically, the enzyme consists of a large protein molecule (apoenzyme) and a small functional group, or active center (coenzyme). In the active center of a number of enzymes are metal ions - zinc, manganese, selenium, iron, copper. Without ions entering the active center, the enzyme can not work. For example, deficiency of selenium causes disturbances in the work of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase. Coenzymes are many vitamins, so even light hypovitaminosis, not to mention heavy beriberi, cause disruption in the work of important enzyme systems.
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