Energy, providing physical activity and activity, is formed due to chemical bonds of food. The ways of accumulation of energy and its distribution in the body are numerous and diverse. Energy provides the activity of cells and the reduction of muscle fibers. Exercise, based on factors such as the speed of contraction of muscle fibers, depends on the presence of energy in the muscle fibers, so the conservation and transfer of energy are the determining factors in the performance of physical exercises. These processes depend on the consumption of nutrients, as well as on fitness, genetic data and the type of physical activity that is performed. Knowing these processes and the factors that affect them is very important for developing individual diets and training programs designed to optimize exercise and overall health.
Accumulation of energy
Energy accumulates in the chemical bonds of carbohydrates, fats or proteins. However, the chemical energy of proteins as a source of physical activity is not immediately used. The primary suppliers of energy for chemical bonds are fats and carbohydrates. Fats of food turn into fatty acids and are used by the body. They can be used in various synthesis processes or directly as an energy source. Excess fatty acids are converted to triglycerides and accumulate mainly in fat and, in part, in muscle tissue. Limits in the accumulation of fat does not exist, so the level of accumulated fat in people is very different. The stores of fat 100 times or more exceed the energy reserves of carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates of food turn into glucose and other simple sugars and are used by the body. Simple sugars are converted into glucose, which can be used in synthesis processes and as a source of energy. Excess glucose molecules are then incorporated into long chains of glycogen and accumulate in the liver and muscle tissue. The amount of glycogen that can be stored is about 100 g in the liver and 375 g in the muscles of adults. Aerobic training loads can increase the level of accumulation of muscle glycogen by a factor of 5. The excess of consumed food carbohydrates, exceeding their level, necessary for maximum filling of the potential glycogen depot, turns into fatty acids and accumulates in adipose tissue.
In comparison with any carbohydrate or protein, fats increase more than 2 times the amount of energy measured in kilocalories, so they are an effective means of accumulating energy while minimizing body weight. Energy in stored fat or glycogen is stored in the chemical bonds of these substances.
Another form of energy storage that comes directly from chemical bonds of food used to maintain motor activity is creatine phosphate (CRF), or phosphocreatine. The body synthesizes phosphocreatine and accumulates small amounts of it in the muscles. Creatine supplements significantly increase intramuscular levels of creatine and phosphocreatine.