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PODIATRIA is a medical field that studies the diagnosis and treatment of foot and ankle diseases.
The podiatry is aimed at studying the lower extremities: it examines the tissues and organs from which they are composed. It includes such branches of science as:
- Osteology is a science that studies bone tissue,
- Myology - a branch of medicine that studies muscles,
- phlebology - explores the venous system,
- angiology - study of the vascular system,
- neurology - investigates the functioning of the peripheral nerves of the extremities,
- Dermatology - studies the skin,
- Lymphology - the science of the lymphatic system,
- biomechanics - studies the principle of mobility of joints of bones,
- Biotribology is a science that describes the processes of friction, wear and lubrication in friction occurring in living organisms.
The podiatry explores the interrelationships between these departments of science in order to determine the conditions that are necessary for individual systems and organs for the most effective functioning of the lower limbs. Legs are a dynamic structure through which we can move. They are arranged in such a way that moving from one place to another is not a big load on the body, in comparison with standing position. We can walk for hours and do not feel discomfort, but when we have to stand in one place, after a few minutes, a feeling of fatigue appears.
The period of pregnancy is very important for the development of the lower extremities. The first embryos of the leg develop at the 4th - 5th week of the fetal life. Embryos of the ligamentous apparatus of the knee and thigh begin to form at the 8th week of embryonic development. The appearance in this period of various pathologies can disrupt the normal development of the limbs, which leads to deformation or change in the system, such as, hip dysplasia.
The next difficult period for the development of the legs is the school, at this time the acquired defects of the lower limbs may occur, for example, flat feet - transverse or longitudinal.
Bony deformities that accompany such diseases as neuropathies, diabetes, ischemia or chronic venous insufficiency lead to skin lesions in the form of calluses and corns. The skin begins to rebuild: an anatomical change occurs and the restoration of its individual layers. As a result, keratinized areas appear where the skin is scraped and sclerotized.
Currently, vascular diseases that infect the lower limbs are very widespread. Knowledge of the anatomy, physiology and pathology of changes in the lower limbs is necessary, since it allows you to properly care for the limbs. Correct, professional care can be provided only with the help of a highly qualified specialist.
Who is a podiatrist?
This is a specialist, to which patients with lower limb problems apply. After a thorough assessment of the clinical condition of the lower limbs, the podiatrist selects the appropriate set of procedures and care products to reduce or eliminate pathological changes in the legs. A qualified doctor should recognize the problem, evaluate it, and in most cases one, or with the participation of other specialists, help patients get rid of leg problems. The doctor advises, gives directions, applies adapted treatment regimens, using a variety of pharmaceutical products and orthopedic appliances (tires, insoles).
Pediatric treatment is diverse in nature and requires the professional knowledge of a doctor in the field of: diabetology, dermatology, surgery, orthopedics, wound care, orthopedic techniques, therapeutic massage and pedicure (used in the prevention and treatment of mycosis).
In the podiatric offices patients are prevented, consulted and treated for various leg diseases.
About the profession of a podiatrist in Ukraine is still very little known, while in other countries of Western Europe in recent years, this specialist is very popular. The greatest number of references to him in Germany. The main task of the podiatrist is to maintain the health of the feet. At the moment when the patient does not have anything to worry about, it is necessary to come to the doctor to have a preventive examination. In those cases where symptoms of the disease manifest themselves, it is necessary to perform procedures and use special methods of treatment to improve health and reduce pain.
When should I go to the podium?
According to recent studies, all individuals over the age of thirty should, at least once every 6-8 weeks, visit a specialist to do a professional pedicure and get advice on the dad. At least with the same frequency, the doctor should visit patients with diabetes.
People with problems of ingrown nails or painful calluses, anyone who feels uncomfortable or who has a genetic predisposition, should consult a specialist.
Our skin and nails have special functions and to maintain them in perfect order it is necessary to constantly take care of them. Even the smallest crack in the skin can be the beginning of a more serious problem, which at later stages will require the help of a doctor. Remember that the choice of shoes, lifestyle and cosmetic procedures have a huge impact on the health of your feet. Healthy, moisturized skin becomes more elastic and less injured.
What tests should I take when I contact a podiatrist?
- Blood test: general, biochemical, for sugar, RW.
- Analysis for fungal nail damage (using microscopic and culturological research determines the type and type of fungal infection)
Before proceeding with the delivery of tests, a specialist consultation is necessary. In each case, specific tests can be assigned.
What does the podiatrist do?
Most people are unaware of the consequences of lack of treatment and proper foot care.
The greatest number of diseases of the lower extremities is observed in people suffering from diabetes. Treatment for diabetic foot is not an easy task. Patients with the "diabetic foot" syndrome should receive competent and professional medical care, and in particular, podiatric care.
Another group consists of athletes who train a lot and intensively, often suffer from severe sweating of the feet, deformed fingers or ingrown nails.
There are problems with the legs of a woman who wears heels for a long time in uncomfortable narrow shoes. They gradually form various deformities of the feet, ingrown nails and "bumps" on the thumbs.
Fortunately, due to the wide range of preventive services and the availability of professional assistance using high-quality innovative equipment, most of these problems can be fully or largely solved in specialized podiatric clinics or rooms.
Therapeutic foot massage and professional procedures that help to facilitate and improve the quality of life of patients. The range of services is not limited to:
- professional pedicure,
- treatment of ingrown nails, infected with fungal infection (twisted and thickened),
- procedures carried out in the horny epidermis,
- detection and elimination of calluses and warts,
Whereas foot diseases are often associated with other diseases and the development of changes can lead to serious complications, it is necessary to work closely with other professionals, to use knowledge in the application of different pharmaceutical products and to assist in the implementation of medical recommendations concerning a care specialist feet.
What diseases are treated by a podiatrist?
It helps with the following diseases:
- skin lesions, plantar warts, fibromas and neoplasms of the skin;
- ingrown nails;
- neuroma Morton (benign growth of the nerves of the foot);
- deformation and foot piles;
- heel spurs;
- changes in the Achilles tendon;
- injuries and sprains of the ankles;
- fungal nails;
- treatment of pain syndromes in case of changes and degeneration of the foot joints;
- benign tumor (ganglion or hygroma ) of the foot;
- valgus deformity and gout;
- non-healing wounds of the legs.
Gymnastics for strengthening the muscles of the foot.
Thanks to these exercises, stress and fatigue of the feet are relieved.
- I.p. Sitting. Pull out your legs and tilt your feet towards you (3 times).
- I.p. As in the first point, tilt the feet to yourself, to the left, to the right (we perform each movement 3 times)
- I.p. Lying down. Circular rotation with your feet left and right (three times)
- I.p. Remains the same. Try maximally pushing your toes (repeat three times).
- I.p. Lying down. The legs are stretched out. We press our toes to the sole and stay for a few seconds in this position. Repeat 3 times.
- We rise. Shook the right leg three times and the same time left.
Gymnastics is over.