Pigmentation of teeth

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 17.10.2021

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Dental pigmentation is a phenomenon that is quite common in both young children and adults.

Color of the tooth does not always give only one enamel. And the final color of it, which we see - a collection of shades, both natural color of the enamel, and more deep layers - dentin. Dental tissue is porous, so any coloring pigment easily enters the pores, thus staining the tooth both from the outside and outside.

Dentists classify this change in the color of the enamel into: a tonal coloring of the enamel, a profound change in tooth color, and pigment changes due to advanced age.

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Causes of tooth pigmentation

The causes of tooth pigmentation are quite different and dentists subdivide them into external causes of dark spots on teeth and internal ones.

To external it is possible to carry: 

  • Smoking. The nicotine gums that are present in the tobacco, penetrating deep into the interior, color the enamel in a yellowish brown color. 
  • Coffee. The penetration effect is similar to the previous one. 
  • Formation on the surface of plaque and stone - a breeding ground for putrefactive bacteria. The tartar is due to the hardening of the plaque. And this is a consequence of the wrong approach to oral hygiene, the lack of solid food in food, or the violation of salt metabolism. 
  • Red wine. Included in its composition are pigments that give the wine such a rich shade, with the same success color and teeth. 
  • Black tea. 
  • And as a lot of products, which include persistent coloring pigments.

These manifestations of discoloration of tooth enamel (both in children and in adults) are easily eliminated. The integrated use of whitening pastes combined with the procedures that dentists offer in their specialized clinics will quickly lead to the desired result.

For internal reasons, tooth pigmentation occurs by staining deep layers of hard tooth tissue: 

  • Excess or lack of fluoride in the body. If in the area where the person lives, there is an increased or decreased fluorine content in the water (at a rate of 1 mg of fluoride per liter), then consuming such liquid, the teeth will darken in the patient, or will acquire dark or milky-white impregnations on the enamel. 
  • Some internal systemic diseases can affect the discoloration of the tooth. 
  • Application in the process of treatment of certain drugs, including antibiotics of the tetracycline series. Prolonged use of such drugs leads to the fact that the tooth begins to give yellow with a grayish tinge. 
  • Filling of teeth. Dental pigmentation can be obtained after this dental procedure. If the filling material is made on the basis of copper amalgam, the seal may eventually acquire a brownish tinge. 
  • With age, the thickness of the enamel layer decreases and the body develops a darker shade of dentin, which contributes to darkening of teeth in elderly people. 
  • Nerve removal and filling of the tooth canal. It is possible to darken not only the tooth itself, but also the area of the gum that comes into contact with it. The reason for this may be an improper installation of a sealed material - a violation of technology and hygiene standards during the procedure. Disinfecting the place of sealing, it is necessary to achieve penetration of this drug to the root of the tooth through the tooth channel, while passing the process of bleaching. Eliminate this defect is possible only with the help of special gels, leading bleaching inside the channel. 
  • In children, often, the pigmentation of the teeth occurs due to various factors: thermal exposure (sharp temperature changes, for example, after a hot soup it starts to drink cold compote), injuries, fungal lesions of the mouth. Due to early caries, the milk teeth can also darken. 
  • In many ways the pigmentation of teeth in a child depends on the food that is included in its diet. It should contain a large number of vitamins and minerals, it is necessary to maintain a balance of proteins, carbons and fats. If any of these components is deficient, the component composition of saliva changes, which is the impetus for darkening the enamel. 
  • Heredity. Some people by nature have a yellowish shade of teeth.

trusted-source[7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13]

Symptoms of tooth pigmentation

Symptoms of the pigmentation of the teeth are perfectly visible to the naked eye: 

  • Dark, yellowish-gray color of tooth enamel. 
  • Pale yellow foci of lesion observed on the surface of the tooth. 
  • Defect of tooth enamel. Anatomical indentations (grooves) accompanied by color disharmony are visible on one or several teeth. 
  • Presence of milky-white (chalk) spots on the teeth. 
  • Presence of matte, brown - yellow pigment spots on the teeth. 
  • There are cases when the pigmentation of teeth is accompanied by an unpleasant odor coming from the mouth. There are also cases of bleeding gums, or the tooth does not sit tightly in the hole, begins to stagger. 
  • Enamel loses its shine and transparency.

Dental pigmentation in children

In small children and adolescents, spots of both carious genesis and non-carious stains are observed. Carious pigment, as well as melovious, can remain intact for a long period of time, without going over to the category of defects. It seems to freeze, stop in development, harden and "cure itself on its own". The same process can occur with a pigmented spot.

Not a carious manifestation of pigmentation of teeth, dentists are already considered as a kind of hypoplasia of enamel, which must be treated. Spots are found as single, occupying a sufficiently large area of the tooth surface, and numerous, spontaneously scattered throughout the surface (the so-called "speckled enamel"). The surface of the tooth is able to pigment both stains and strips, alternating strips of natural shade with pigmenting strips. The color of pigmentation ranges from light yellow color, to a dark brown palette. Less common is the brown or black tone of the pigmentation spot. In more severe cases, dentists observe a combination of color changes in the enamel and foci of erosion.

To date, it is very difficult to find even one baby, who was circumvented by the problem associated with his teeth. Often they not only darken, but can become completely black.

The causes of infantile teeth pigmentation may be related to: 

  • Incorrect position of parents in the approach to child nutrition. 
  • Low digestibility of the child's body of calcium. 
  • Not compliance with oral hygiene and, as a consequence, the formation of plaque. 
  • Development of early caries. 
  • Hereditary-genetic characteristics of the color of tooth enamel. 
  • Disturbance in the salivary glands. 
  • Dysbacteriosis of the intestine. 
  • Chronic systemic diseases. 
  • Fungal occurrences in the gastrointestinal tract. 
  • Large consumption of sugar and sugar-containing products. 
  • Failure in the operation of metabolic processes. 
  • Violation of the metabolism of flora. 
  • Adults should not use the baby's cutlery. 
  • Acceptance of certain medications containing iron. 
  • Injuries resulting from mechanical, thermal or chemical influences.

Many parents believe that it is not necessary to treat baby teeth, they will soon grow up permanent. This is not the correct opinion, since the last teeth of a child change at the age of 12 to 13 years. And if the dairy has fallen much earlier, the baby eventually gets an incorrect bite, with all the consequences, and (if the tooth was sick), the hole can be infected and the karapuz will get a permanent tooth instead of the fallen milk tooth.

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Pigmentation and plaque on the teeth

Teeth of a healthy person have a white, slightly milky color, with slight color deviations - these are pale shades of blue, gray or yellow. As a result of improper dental care and general hygiene of the entire oral cavity - the formation of a plaque on the outer surface of the tooth enamel.

Pigmentation of teeth and plaques - their color range may be different, depending on the reasons for which the discoloration of the enamel has occurred. 

  • With local hemorrhage, if the liquid enters the pulp (as a result of severe hepatitis of viral genesis), the tooth falling into the area of the hematoma can be dyed pink. 
  • Leaking jaundice can shade the enamel in yellow color. 
  • If there was a need for a future mother or preschooler, the doctor attributed the antibiotic of the tetracycline group, be prepared for the color of teeth (both dairy and permanent) to change and become grayish-yellow. 
  • If the pulp becomes infected, if it is rotting, the decay products of this process enter the dentinal canals. This provokes a change in the structure of the tooth enamel - it becomes matte-dull. 
  • When processing and filling the dental canals, the dentist often uses resorcinol - formalin paste or paracine, which is then able to give the enamel a sufficiently bright pink shade. 
  • Brown, brown and almost black plaque have the teeth of a smoker. 
  • Blueberry berries can give pigmentation of teeth and a "wonderful" bluish-black shade. 
  • And so on. As you can see, the color palette is quite wide. And if the tooth has undergone a short-term external action, then it is not necessary to worry particularly, the color of the enamel will be restored independently, if the pigmentation of the teeth is a symptom of some systemic disease, then the treatment is inevitable. But this fact can only be established by a specialist.

Diagnosis of tooth pigmentation

In modern clinical medicine, the diagnosis of tooth pigmentation does not provide specialists with a large arsenal of tools. 

  • Like many years ago, the diagnosis of a dentist based on clinical symptoms, collected at a visual examination of the patient. 
  • In more complicated cases, radiography comes to his aid, which allows the specialist to look at the internal structural structure of the tooth and assess the existing pathological abnormalities. Orthopantomograph is a special medical device that allows you to get not only the traditional classical X-ray image, but also to see the jaw region of interest on the computer screen. Thanks to him in modern specialized clinics diagnose many diseases of the dental profile. In the process of treatment, he allows the doctor to evaluate the correctness of the chosen protocol and correct it in time. 
  • To additional methods of examination, it is possible to include modern computer techniques. More and more people are starting to use digital equipment. Radiovisiograph, as well as digital orthopantomograph. Such medical equipment is a step above its non-digital counterparts: 
    • The doctor receives a higher resolution image. 
    • The dose of radiation that the patient receives is almost 90% lower, which is more sparing for the patient's body. 
    • Allows the specialist to view the object of interest from various angles. 
    • Using digital equipment, the doctor has the ability to save all the pictures interesting to him electronically in the computer's memory, which will allow to compare the result of the treatment and to evaluate its effectiveness in the future. 
  • Microscopy. It is simply indispensable in the early stages of the disease. This technique allows, in diagnosing the pigmentation of teeth, to increase the size of the object under study twenty-five times or more. This makes it possible to study in more detail the object of interest, its anatomical structure, the scale of the pathology. Often, a surgical procedure is performed with the help of a microscope (for example, the elimination of a chronic infectious focus). 
  • Rheodentography. Allows for a good resolution to investigate the functional state of tooth pulp, as well as differentiate the depth of lesions with caries. This procedure is applicable when assessing the effectiveness of using an anesthetic. 
  • Electroodontodiagnosis. With this method, a dentist can assess the condition of the nerve endings of a dental bulb. The dosed electric current, without damaging the tissue envelope of the pulp, affects the nerve. 
  • Reoparodontography. It gives an opportunity to evaluate the functionality of the periodontal blood vessels. It graphically displays the total electrical resistance of the fabric forms (its electrical conductivity). 
  • And others.

Only after a complete diagnosis of tooth pigmentation, the attending physician can confidently prescribe an effective treatment.

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Treatment of tooth pigmentation

Many people consider tooth pigmentation to be only a cosmetic problem. But the pathology of tooth enamel can provoke the development of another, more severe, disease. And how early the patient will turn to a specialist for help, depends the degree of neglect of the disease and the complexity of its treatment. Quickly, with high quality and with the expected result, only a specialist can conduct a course of treatment.

Treatment of tooth pigmentation is carried out in a complex way and depends on what is the reason, which entailed a change in the color of the tooth enamel.

With the help of a special medical excavator, the dentist removes a sufficiently dense coating on the tooth surface. It also removes the plaque formed by the smoker after a lengthy period of smoking. The next step will be cleaning the enamel with an abrasive paste and a special brush. Doctors warn everyone who uses pumice to polish their teeth. Beget and zealous in this case is not worth it, as this procedure involves damage to the enamel. Therefore, after cleaning, the tooth itself and the gum adjacent to it must necessarily be treated with an alcohol solution of iodine or hydrogen peroxide. If the pulp of this tooth is dead, then this method of treatment gives an excellent result.

The erosion of tooth enamel and tooth pigmentation in many cases is provoked by changes in the composition of saliva secretion. It can be observed in patients who have a history of abnormalities in the thyroid gland. In this case, the doctor appoints a patient a complex of vitamins and fluorine-containing drugs, as well as calcium preparations (calcium gluconate (10% solution), calcium glycerophosphate (2.5%), calcium chloride (10%)) and complex medications (remodent and prophocar ).

  • Glofolored

Sequence of application: 

  • The surface of the tooth should be rinsed thoroughly with water. 
  • Dry with a jet of compressed air. 
  • Apply the drug generously and stand for one minute. 
  • Using a dry hygroscopic tampon, remove excess moisture. 
  • On the finished surface, previously well shaking the bottle, apply a gel of calcium hydroxide. Soak for a minute. 
  • Rinse off with a jet of pressure water. 
  • To consolidate success, this process should be held again in two weeks. 
  • In the future, in order to maintain the teeth in a normal state it will be enough to repeat this procedure once or twice during the year. 
  • After processing the material with glufteredom, the surface of the teeth is etched by bonding, picking it up as close as possible to the color of the natural color of the patient's teeth.

Gluftred practically has no contraindications, but it requires strict adherence to the order of application of components.

  • Bodding

Monobond Plus single-component dental product makes it possible to create strong bonding of the fixing composite with restorative materials that participated in the restoration of the enamel with the pigmentation of the teeth.

The composition of this drug includes a solution of methacrylate phosphoric acid, methacrylate silane and sulfide methacrylate. This drug acts as a compound agent, which provides long-term chemical bonds of fixing materials with composite materials.

The drug Monobond Plus is applied to the pre-drug treated tooth surface. The application is carried out in the reverse order. Primarily, to protect the pulp, the enamel is covered with a suspension of calcium hydroxide, held for about a minute. After that, the surface must be dried and treated with liquid. Again, soak the minute, carefully dry and again apply a second layer of the suspension.

To side effects and contraindications of the drug Monobond Plus can be attributed only to allergic manifestations of the components of this medicine.

  • Remodent

Used in the form of rinses. The procedure is carried out after eating, and it lasts three to five minutes. The solution is made 3%, diluted in 100 ml of boiled water 3 g of powder.

Prophylactically, rinsing with this drug is carried out two to eight times a month for 10 months. For therapeutic purposes, rinse is done up to four times a week. Therapeutic course from 16 to 40 procedures. A dental product should not be used in people who have a hypersensitive reaction to components.

  • Profocar

This multicomponent drug is also used as a means to promote the development of the crystal lattice to create adaptive drug binding to tooth enamel. Contains a whole complex of chemical elements and is made on the basis of tubular bones of cattle. This is a clear liquid that is applied to the surface of the treated tooth.

To fix the result and prolong the effect as long as possible, after carrying out all the treatment procedures, the enamel surface is covered with caries-preventive varnish. Most of them are fluorine-containing products. Their advantages are that they provide a more productive transition from the composition to the enamel of fluoride ions. This is largely facilitated by the contact of the drug with saliva. Such varnishes are very effective in case of increased sensitivity of the tooth, providing it with an impermeable, durable, long-lasting protection. Also, the use of lacquer helps protect the tooth from putrefactive pathogenic flora.

Before application, the teeth are carefully wiped with a swab, cleansing from drooling and plaque, dried. The dentition is covered with rolls of cotton wool. Special means are applied first on the teeth of the lower jaw, then the upper jaw. Within three to four minutes the patient should sit with his mouth open so that the varnish has time to dry. Over the next 24 hours, the dentist does not recommend the inclusion of hard foods, allowing the lacquer to gain a foothold.

If the pigmentation of the teeth is obtained due to external influence, then this deviation can be eliminated by applying whitening pastes or methods of bleaching enamel, which are used during the dental procedure in specialized clinics. The dentist will remove the plaque and dental calculi, and will perform the bleaching procedure. It does not take long, but the result is impressive. Modern dentistry is ready to offer several methods of "cleaning teeth" with: laser beams, ultrasound, special photo lamps and others.

There are also so-called lining (veneers or lumineers), which are placed over the tooth, fixed. Such a device is used in the case when the darkening of the enamel is not diagnosed, but the color component of the dentine is not recognized. These patches not only visually clarify the tooth, but also able to adjust its shape, approaching the ideal bite. With a pronounced defect, the dentist proposes to use prosthetic materials with composite materials.

If the pigmentation of the teeth is negligible, it can be corrected at home. For this purpose it is necessary to use regularly, with an allowable periodicity, special whitening pastes and gels. One of them:

  • Colgate Simply White Night Gel

This gel was developed specifically for use at home.

The drug is applied to the enamel, which has been cleaned with ordinary toothpaste and dried with swabs. Separately for each tooth. The product quickly penetrates into the deeper layers of enamel and dentin, so rinsing and drying the dentition after the procedure is not necessary. We must endure 15 minutes without taking any food or drink. After three to five days, the result is already visible. If the Colgate Simply White Night gel uses a long period of time, you can lighten the enamel by three to four tones.

Work with the drug should be carefully, make sure that the product does not get into the eyes, and in case of embarrassment, rinse thoroughly with water. This drug can not be used by children who are under 12 years old. The effectiveness of bleaching lasts about a year.

There are also several alternative means for teeth whitening, but it should be remembered that these are powerful enough tools, they erase the enamel, so do not be zealous and part: 

  • With the help of baking soda. Slightly wet the toothbrush, dip it into soda. Then just brush your teeth as usual. 
  • Hydrogen peroxide gives an excellent result. Brush your teeth with ordinary toothpaste, and then rinse the mouth with peroxide or wipe the dentition with a cotton swab dipped in the preparation. 
  • Activated carbon. To crush and brush their teeth. But it is worth being prepared for the fact that such a procedure can lead to a temporary blackening of the enamel.
  • Fruity whitening. There are berries (for example, strawberries and strawberries), which are excellent natural bleaches. They are not easy to eat with pleasure, but also to clean the enamel. It is necessary to grind the berry over the surface of the teeth, hold it for a while. After, brush your teeth with paste, preferably fluoride-containing. 
  • Eggplant. Blue should be burned on an open fire until the moment when a black powder appears. It should be quite a lot. They clean tooth enamel. But do not use a toothbrush (it damages the surface), it's better to do it with your finger.

Especially such procedures are effective if the pigmentation of the teeth appeared due to consumption of tea, coffee and enzyme products that lead to enamel darkening.

Prevention of tooth pigmentation

Dark, spotted teeth in the mouth are not aesthetically pleasing, and so that a person does not feel discomfort during communication with other representatives of the society, it is necessary to know that the prevention of tooth pigmentation is a difficult and not troublesome business. And if a person introduces these insignificant rules into his life from infancy, then a snow-white Hollywood smile is provided to him. 

  • First of all, both the child and the adult should receive a full balanced diet. The diet requires the mandatory presence of foods rich in vitamins and trace elements. A man must eat a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, meat and seafood ... 
  • Hygiene of the whole organism, and in particular of the oral cavity:
    • Clean the teeth twice a day. 
    • We rinse the mouth after each meal. 
    • Hands to wash: before each meal, after each visit to the toilet and after they returned from the street.
    • Every family member should have his own cutlery. 
  • If there are dark spots - seek the advice of a specialist. 
  • And for adults and for children mandatory are preventive examinations with a dentist. 
  • Do not smoke, minimize the consumption of coffee and strong black tea. 
  • Do not eat too cold or too hot food. 
  • Do not delay with the treatment or prosthetics of the teeth. 
  • Do not let other systemic diseases run their course. 
  • It is necessary to treat not only permanent, but also baby teeth. Healthy baby teeth are a pledge of strong permanent teeth.

Prognosis of tooth pigmentation

The prognosis of tooth pigmentation largely depends on the severity of the lesion and the disease, which provokes a discoloration of the tooth enamel. But in any case, the level of modern somatology makes it possible to make your smile snow-white and bright. Stop only for the tools that the dentist will have to resort to to return you moderation in yourself, the comfort of social relations.

Agree, it is much more pleasant to communicate with a person who has a dazzling smile and how comfortable you and your companion feel if your teeth have a repulsive yellow tint and bad breath from your mouth. Pigmentation of teeth gives an image of untidiness to a person. Do not bring yourself or your child to this point. It is much easier to prevent pathology than to treat it. At the slightest suspicion of pigmentation of teeth, contact a specialist who will help you in a qualitative and effective way. And you can not throw off the shields to maintain the hygiene of your body and household hygiene in general. After all, due to preventive measures, you can put a reliable barrier to any manifestations of the disease. And let your smile always remain radiant !!!

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