The incubation period of mumps (mumps, mumps) is 9-26 days. Clinical manifestations depend on the form of the disease.
The defeat of parotid glands (parotitis) is the most frequent manifestation of mumps infection.
Epidemic parotitis (mumps infection, mumps) begins acutely, with the rise in body temperature to 38-39 ° C. The child complains of headache, malaise, pain in the muscles, a decrease in appetite. Often the first symptoms of the disease are pain in the region of the parotid salivary gland, especially during chewing or talking. By the end of the first, less often on the second day after the onset of the disease parotid glands are enlarged. Usually the process starts on one side, and after 1-2 days the iron is drawn from the opposite side. The swelling appears in front of the ear, descends along the ascending branch of the lower jaw and behind the auricle, lifting it up and out. The increase in the parotid salivary gland may be small and can only be determined by palpation. In other cases, the parotid gland reaches a large size, the hypoderm of the subcutaneous tissue extends to the neck and the temporal region. The skin above the swelling is tense, but without inflammatory changes. When palpation, the salivary gland has a soft or testy consistency, painful. Point painful points NF Filatova: in front of the earlobe, in the region of the apex of the mastoid process and in the place of the incision of the lower jaw.
The increase in parotid glands usually increases within 2-4 days, and then their sizes slowly normalize. Simultaneously or sequentially, other salivary glands are involved in the process - submandibular (submaxillitis), sublingual (sublingual).
Submaxillite is observed in every fourth patient with mumps infection. More often it is combined with the defeat of parotid salivary glands, it is rarely the primary and only manifestation. In these cases, the swelling is located in the submaxillary region in the form of a rounded formation of the testate consistency. In severe forms in the gland can appear fibrotic edema that spreads to the neck.
Isolated lesions of the sublingual salivary gland (sublingual) are observed exceptionally rarely. This swelling appears under the tongue.
The defeat of the genitals. In mumps infection, the testicles, ovaries, prostate gland, mammary glands can be involved in the pathological process.
In adolescents and men under 30, orchitis is more common. This localization of mumps infection is noted in approximately 25% of cases.
After the transferred orchitis there are persistent dysfunctions of the testicles, this is one of the main causes of male infertility. Almost half of the affected orchites are disturbed by spermatogenesis, while a third reveal signs of testicular atrophy.
Orchitis usually appears 1-2 weeks after the onset of salivary gland lesions, sometimes the testicles become the primary localization of mumps infection. Perhaps in these cases, the lesion of the salivary glands is mildly pronounced and not timely diagnosed.
Inflammation of the testicles occurs as a result of the effect of the virus on the epithelium of the seminiferous tubules. The onset of pain syndrome is due to irritation of the receptors in the course of the inflammatory process, as well as the edema of the malodour stomach. Increase in intrachannel pressure leads to disturbance of microcirculation and organ function.
The disease begins with an increase in body temperature to 38-39 ° C and is often accompanied by chills. Characterized by headache, weakness, intense pain in the groin, intensifying when trying to walk, with irradiation in the testicle. The pains are localized mainly in the scrotum and testicles. The testicle is enlarged, compacted, sharply painful when palpated. The skin of the scrotum is hyperemic, sometimes with a cyanotic shade.
One-sided process is most often observed. Signs of organ atrophy are revealed later, after 1-2 months, while the testicle is reduced and becomes soft. Orchids can be combined with epididymitis.
A rare manifestation of parotitis infection is thyroiditis. Clinically, this form of the disease is manifested by an increase in the thyroid gland, fever, tachycardia, pain in the neck.
Perhaps the defeat of the tear gland is dacryoadenitis, clinically manifested by pain in the eyes and edema of the eyelids.
The defeat of the nervous system. Usually, the nervous system is involved in the pathological process after the defeat of the glandular organs, and only in rare cases, the defeat of the nervous system is the only manifestation of the disease. In these cases, the defeat of the salivary glands is minimal and therefore it is viewed. Clinically, the disease manifests with serous meningitis, meningoencephalitis, rarely neuritis, or polyradiculoneuritis.
Neuritis and polyradiculoneuritis are rare, polyradiculitis of the Guillain-Barre type is possible.
Parotite pancreatitis usually develops in combination with the damage of other organs and systems.