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Medical expert of the article

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 11.04.2020

The first cycle of menstruation, which appears in a girl in adolescence, is called a menarche. Specialists can not yet understand what is the main etiological factor for the onset of menarche at any age. But it is believed that the genetic characteristics of the body, proper nutrition and acceptable physical activity are the main reasons for the beginning of this period on time. By the time the menarche comes, adolescents leave the "stormy" period of their development behind, reaching the maximum possible growth.

Time of the onset of menarche

If a girl develops normally, the first menarche begins at the age of ten and a half to sixteen and a half years. During this period the adolescent reaches his mature "gynecological age". The first monthly cycle says that the girl's body has already reached its sexual development, but at the same time it is not yet ready for the birth of children.

If the girl has a menarche from 12 to 14 years old, this is considered normal development. In some adolescents, the first menstruation may linger or begin earlier. It depends on the individual characteristics of her body. To understand what caused the early menarche, you need to contact a pediatric gynecologist.

The appearance of menarche is greatly influenced by the daily diet of a teenager. It is very important that the girl receives a varied and full meal. Menarche can cause stressful situations, so it is important to monitor the emotional health of the child, and physical loads play an important role.

Statistics argue that most often menarche begins in autumn-winter, that is, in the cold months.

Signs of menarche

The first signs begin to appear in adolescents one to two months before the onset of the first menstrual cycle:

  1. Painful sensations that appear in the lower abdomen. Pain in the abdomen can have a pronounced intensity or be barely noticeable.
  2.  A few months before the menarche, natural discharge from the vagina can become white and frequent.
  3. Just like in adult women, girls may have a so-called "premenstrual syndrome". During this period, adolescents have a sharp decline in strength, frequent headaches and a changing emotional state.

Earlier menarche

In some cases, in girls, the first sexual signs appear up to eight years. This is considered an early menarche. It is very important to immediately visit with a child specialist who will determine why the first menstrual cycle started so early.

As a rule, the early menarche appears due to improper operation of the ovaries, adrenal glands or pituitary gland. In this case, too much testosterone and estrogens are released in the child's body. In some cases, the reasons may be:

  1. Features of ecology.
  2. Stressful situations in the life of a teenager.
  3. Defective food.

If we talk about more serious causes of early menarche, then there are some serious diseases:

  1. Tumors in the spinal cord or brain, or their severe injuries.
  2. Ischemia.
  3. Transfer of meningitis or encephalitis.
  4. Wrong adrenal activity.
  5. Genetic diseases (including McCune-Albright Syndrome).
  6. Incorrect thyroid function.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16]

Later menarche

Talk about the late menarche can be done if the first menstruation does not begin in a teenager after 16 years. But do not worry immediately if the menarche is delayed. This can occur because of an inadequate diet, individual body characteristics, stressful situations, "sitting" on diets, unfavorable ecology, debilitating physical exertion or nervous irritation.

The most common cause of late menarche is the excessively low body weight of the girl. If the body lacks fatty tissue, this can cause insufficient amounts of estrogen. Remember that 17% of adipose tissue is considered the norm.

Later on, the menarche can also talk about serious diseases:

  1. Pathology in the functional and anatomical development of the uterus.
  2. Miswork of the ovaries.
  3. Disorder of the endocrine glands.
  4. Disruption of the pituitary gland.

That is why it is necessary to visit a children's gynecologist, who will determine what the problem may be.

The first menarche

The first menarche is a stressful situation for the girl, if not prepare it for her in advance. The menstrual cycle is always formed gradually, so parents usually have time to talk with their daughter about menarche. Do not expect that immediately after the first menstruation, the girl's cycle will always be equal and equal. The body is still developing, so delays for several days should not cause concern.

Delay of menarche

Isolated delay of the first menstrual cycle is a disease in which the girl has all the signs of puberty, but the monthly does not come about four to five years.

There are many reasons for this delay:

  1. Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism: a pathology that means that the sex glands function not correctly.
  2. Deficiency of some hormones in the body (including gonadotropins).
  3. The outflow of blood from the vagina is impossible because of too dense hymen.
  4. Malformation of internal genital organs (agenesis of the uterus or vagina).

Remember that only a professional can make an accurate diagnosis, so if there is a strong delay in the first months in a teenager, be sure to visit the children's gynecologist.

The delay in menarche can cause infertility.

trusted-source[17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30], [31], [32], [33], [34]

Monthly after menarche

After the start of menarche, menstruation comes again in 25-28 days. This is the standard interval, but in some cases it may be more or less. It happens that the cyclicity after menarche is not established immediately, so the start of a new menstruation can be expected even two or three months. This is normal and there is no need to worry in vain.

The first year after the menarche is considered special in the life of the girl. It is not recommended to conduct any surgical operations during this period. Also, try to protect the child from stress, as they can then cause serious women's problems in the future.

Many girls before menstruation begin premenstrual syndrome (change of mood, abdominal pain, swelling of the chest).

Delay after menarche

After the first menstruation, cycle fluctuations are the norm and should not be frightened either by the child or by his parents. Some factors are very important here, namely the teenager's physical health, his diet, exercise, stress. For those who eat right and do not have bad habits, the cycle almost immediately becomes the same.

In adolescents with a delayed physical development of a weak immune system, chronic diseases, the stability of the menstrual cycle after menarche can fluctuate. In this case, menstruation can bring a lot of unpleasant sensations: fever, headaches, shortness of breath, sweating, chest pain and lower abdomen.

The main causes of delay after menarche are:

  1. Improper diet - try to follow, so that the child does not sit on debilitating diets, and also does not overeat.
  2. Excessive physical exertion - if the child is doing too much sports, this can lead to delays in the months.
  3. Acclimatization - sometimes sudden cooling or warming may be the cause of delays.
  4. Stresses - nervous tension often negatively affects women's health, especially after the first menarche.

trusted-source[35], [36], [37], [38], [39], [40]

How to cause menarche?

If there is no reason to delay menarche, you should immediately contact a specialist. The fact is that the first months can not come because of hormonal failure, which must be properly treated. Remember that only a professional gynecologist can advise how to induce menarche without damaging the health of a teenager.

But there are general recommendations that can be used without a doctor:

  1. Regularly and properly eat.
  2. Stabilize the emotional background of the child.
  3. Adhere to a healthy lifestyle.

Very often, if the delay in menarche is not a consequence of serious illness, doctors prescribe Dufaston. This drug helps to cause the first menstruation. The drug contains the active ingredient dydrogesterone. Dosage is prescribed by a doctor.

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