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Increased salivation can occur at the sight of food, during a meal - and this is natural. However, sometimes this symptom can be associated with certain specific conditions of the body or even with diseases. The process of salivation is a necessary and important function of the salivary glands. Normally, about 1 ml of saliva should be released every 5 minutes, but sometimes it is produced much more.
Causes of increased salivation
Increased saliva production is most often observed when exposed to certain conditioned stimuli: odor, type of food. Normal salivation should occur in the absence of any factors - this process is necessary to maintain the oral mucosa in a wet state, as well as for normal digestion.
When saliva is excreted in larger quantities than can be enough, they speak of increased detachment, or so-called hypersalivation. There are several factors contributing to the development of this state:
- the use of certain drugs, which may have increased saliva secretion as a side effect;
- metabolic disorder;
- neurological diseases;
- acute poisoning or toxicoinfection;
- otorhinolaryngological pathologies.
Sometimes an increase in saliva production can be observed during adolescence. This condition is not a pathology, it is only a consequence of changes in hormonal levels during puberty.
However, it has been proven that over time in adult patients, saliva secretion gradually decreases, since age-related changes may inhibit the work of the secretory glands.
Hypersalivation is often found in people with dental problems, but after dental treatment, saliva is usually normalized.
Increased saliva production is also observed in people who smoke a lot: salivation is triggered primarily by nicotine and tar, as well as tobacco smoke, which irritates the mucous membrane and receptors of the glands.
Increased salivation can be observed in the pathologies of the digestive system (for example, in a stomach ulcer), in parasitic invasions, in women during pregnancy, and in nervous diseases (brain cancer, ischemia, parkinsonism, schizophrenia, etc.).
Symptoms of increased salivation
Patients usually complain of increased excessive production of salivary fluid in the oral cavity, a reflex desire to constantly spit. The examination reveals an increase in the secretory function of the salivary glands more than 5 ml in 10 minutes (at a rate of 2 ml).
In some cases, an increase in salivation is associated with a disorder in the function of swallowing due to inflammation in the oral cavity, an injury to the tongue, and disorders of the innervation of the bulbar nerves. At the same time, the amount of saliva is within normal limits, however, patients have a deceptive feeling of excessive salivation. The same symptoms are characteristic of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorders.
Sometimes, increased saliva secretion can be combined with a change in taste, with a decrease, increase or perversion of the sensitivity of taste.
There may be various options for increasing salivation:
Increased salivation at night
Normally, a smaller amount of salivary fluid should be produced in a dream than during wakefulness. But sometimes the salivary glands wake up earlier than a person: at such moments we can observe the flow of salivary fluid from the sleeper. If this happens infrequently, there is no cause for concern. Frequently, saliva discharge at night is associated with a lack of nasal breathing (for colds, nasal congestion): after the nasal passages are restored, the saliva from the mouth stops. Also, saliva at night can be associated with improper bite, lack of teeth: such problems are solved by visiting the dentist. When a person sleeps well enough, he may at some point lose control of his body, which is manifested in the form of increased salivation.
Increased salivation and nausea
Such symptoms can be combined with pregnancy, lesion of the vagus nerve, inflammation of the pancreas, gastritis and gastric ulcer. To clarify the reasons should be examined by a specialist.
Increased salivation after eating
Normally, salivation begins with food intake and stops immediately after eating. If the meal is over, and salivation does not stop, it can be a sign of helminthic invasions. Worms can affect almost any of the organs: the liver, lungs, intestines, heart, and even the brain. Increased drooling after eating, appetite disorders, constant fatigue - the main initial signs of such a lesion. For a more accurate diagnosis, you must visit a specialist.
Belching and increased salivation
Such symptoms are observed in diseases of the stomach (acute, chronic or erosive form of gastritis): at the same time belching can be both sour and bitter, occurring more often in the morning and combined with the release of significant amounts of salivary or mucous membranes. In diseases of the digestive system, which are associated with obstruction or with poor cross-feeding of food (spasms, tumors, esophagitis), there may be increased salivation, a lump in the throat, difficulty swallowing. All these signs are serious enough and require the advice of a medical professional.
Increased salivation and sore throat
These symptoms may be symptoms of lacunar tonsillitis. The clinical picture, in addition to the listed symptoms, is characterized by fever up to 39 C, fever and general malaise, headache. In childhood, the disease may be accompanied by vomiting. On examination, swollen and reddened tonsils with patches of light bloom are observed, an increase in cervical lymph nodes is possible. Such a sore throat lasts about a week and requires mandatory treatment.
Increased salivation during conversation
Such a pathological salivation can be observed when there is a lack of coordination of the oral muscles, which is manifested in cerebral palsy and some neurological diseases. Disruption of hormonal balance can provoke an increase in salivation, which can often be found in thyroid gland pathologies and other endocrine disorders, in particular, in diabetes mellitus.
Increased salivation in women
Women at the beginning of menopause can also suffer from increased salivation, which appears along with increased sweating and flushing. Experts associate this with hormonal changes in the body. Usually such phenomena gradually disappear without requiring special treatment.
Increased salivation during pregnancy
During the period of gestation, manifestations of toxemia can affect the cerebral circulation, which provokes an increase in salivation. Accompanying this symptom may be heartburn, nausea. Also a big role in the causes of salivation during pregnancy is played by a lack of vitamins and a decrease in immune protection, which can be compensated by prescribing vitamin complexes and observing good nutrition.
Increased salivation in a child
Salivation in children of the first year of life is a completely normal condition that does not require the use of therapeutic measures. Such children "slobber" due to the unconditionally-reflex factor. Later, salivation may occur during teething: this is also not a pathological condition and does not require intervention. Older children should not "slobber". With the appearance of this symptom, you can assume a brain injury or other pathology of the nervous system: you must show the child to a specialist.
Increased salivation in infants
Children of infancy may suffer from increased salivation also due to infection or any irritant in the oral cavity. Sometimes the amount of salivary fluid is within the normal range, but the baby does not swallow it: this happens with pain in the neck or if there are other reasons that disturb or impede swallowing. A common cause of increased salivation in an infant is also considered to be cerebral palsy.
Diagnosis of increased salivation
What is the diagnosis of increased salivation?
- Collection of complaints (anamnesis) - the duration of signs of salivation, the presence of other symptoms.
- Life history - heredity, the presence of bad habits, chronic pathologies, professional activities.
- Inspection - checks the condition of the oral mucosa, the absence of damage to the tongue and palate.
- Functional analysis to determine the amount of salivary fluid secreted.
- Consultation with other specialized specialists (dentist, neuropathologist, parasitologist, endocrinologist, gastroenterologist, etc.) to determine the causes of increased salivation.
Remember that effective treatment of increased salivation is impossible without determining the true root cause of this condition.
Treatment of increased salivation
What to do with increased salivation? To begin with, you should consult a doctor, for example, a therapist. If the need arises, he will appoint you to consult more narrow specialists.
The main point in treatment is to determine the predisposing factor that could cause salivation. Further therapy directly depends on the underlying disease: it can be antihelminthic treatment, correction of the dentition or prescription of drugs to improve digestion.
There are a number of specific methods that can be applied at the discretion of the physician:
- the appointment of anticholinergic drugs that inhibit the release of salivary fluid (platifillin, riabal, scopolamine). In addition to the therapeutic effect, drugs can cause excessive dryness of the mouth, blurred vision, tachycardia;
- surgical method of selective removal of the salivary glands, may be accompanied by a violation of the innervation of the facial nerves;
- radiation therapy that contributes to the death and scarring of the salivary ducts. May provoke the destruction of tooth enamel;
- Exercise therapy and massage of the facial area, is performed with ischemic strokes and neurological disorders;
- Botox (botulinum toxin) injections into the region of the salivary glands blocks the release of salivary fluid for at least six months. Before the procedure, you can not take alcohol, as well as taking antibiotics and blood thinners;
- cryotherapy method - a long course of treatment that allows reflexive involvement of saliva swallowing.
You can apply a homeopathic treatment, for example, a tableted agent Mercurius Heel, consisting of potentiated mercury. The drug effectively reduces and normalizes the secretion of saliva. It is taken three times a day in the amount of one lozenge under the tongue. Mercurius is also produced in ampoules that can be used as intramuscular injections, or diluted with water and drunk. The use of the drug should be agreed with the doctor.
Treatment of increased salivation with alternative means
Sometimes, in the absence of serious causes of increased salivation, it is possible to influence the pathology by the use of alternative means:
- extract or tincture of water pepper (sold in a pharmacy). Dilute a tablespoon of tincture in a glass of water, rinse the mouth after each meal;
- lagohilus intoxicating. Take 20 g of the leaves of the plant, pour 200 ml of hot water, heat it on the water bath for 15 minutes, cool and strain. Rinse your mouth several times a day after meals;
- viburnum berries. Fruits are pounded in a mortar, poured boiling water (2 tablespoons of fruit per 200 ml of water), after 4 hours, strain and use for rinsing the mouth, you can add to tea and drink several times a day;
- shepherd's tincture. Dilute 25 drops of tincture in 1/3 cup of water and rinse the mouth after each meal.
You can rinse your mouth with chamomile decoction, extract of oak bark, any vegetable oil. It is recommended to brush your teeth more often, avoid starchy foods, use vitamin complexes.
Good effect gives the use of unsweetened tea or water with the addition of lemon juice.
If alternative tips do not help, do not waste time and consult a doctor: perhaps the cause of drooling is much deeper, which requires additional diagnostics and qualified treatment.
Prevention of increased salivation
Prevention of increased salivation is primarily in the prevention of pathologies that can provoke this manifestation. This observance of the rules of oral hygiene, dental care and timely visits to the dentist, proper and nutritious food, an active lifestyle. It is necessary to treat infectious diseases, pathologies of the oral cavity in a timely manner, to observe measures for the prevention of helminthic invasions.
The prognosis of increased salivation may be favorable, provided effective treatment of the underlying disease, which could provoke salivation.
Increased salivation can be a sign of many diseases, so before starting treatment it is recommended to undergo qualified diagnostics and specialist consultation.