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Hip Joint

Medical expert of the article

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 20.11.2021

The hip joint (art. Coxae) is formed by the semilunar surface of the acetabulum of the pelvic bone and the head of the femur. The joint surface of the pelvic bone increases due to the acetabulum (labrum acetabulae). It is a fibrous-cartilaginous formation, firmly fused with the edges of the acetabulum. Above the notch of the acetabulum, a transverse ligament of the acetabulum is transected (lig. Transversum acetabuli). The joint capsule of the hip joint is attached along the circumference of the acetabulum, so the acetabulum is located in the joint cavity. On the femur, the capsule is attached along the intervertebral line, and behind - on the femoral neck near the intervertebral crest, so the entire cervix is in the joint cavity. The joint capsule is strong, strengthened with powerful ligaments. In the thickness of the fibrous membrane of the hip joint is a thick ligament - a circular zone (zona orbicularis), covering the femoral neck in the form of a loop. This ligament is attached to the ilium under the lower anterior iliac spine. The ileo -femoral ligament (lig. Iliofemoral), the berthinia ligament, starts on the inferior anterior iliac awn and attaches to the intertwining line, has a thickness of about 1 cm. This is the most sturdy ligament that withstands a load of up to 300 kg. The pubic-femoral ligament (lig. Pubofemoral) comes from the upper branch of the pubic bone and the ileal bone to the medial part of the interstitial line. The sciatic-femoral ligament (lig. Ischiofemorale) is located on the posterior surface of the joint. It begins on the body of the ischium, goes outward and almost horizontally, ends at the fossa of the large trochanter. In the joint cavity there is a joint of the head of the femur (lig. Capitis femoris), covered with the synovial membrane , connecting the head of the femur and the margins of the acetabular cut. This ligament plays a role in the period of hip joint formation in the fetus and after birth, keeping the femur head in the acetabulum.

Femoral joint in the form of articular surfaces is a cup-shaped joint (art. Cotylica) - a kind of globular joint. Around the front axis, flexion and extension are possible. The volume of this movement depends on the position of the shin in the knee joint. The maximum flexion (about 120 °) is carried out with a bent shank. When the leg is unbent, the volume of flexion (up to 85 °) is lowered due to the tension of the posterior group of hamstrings. Extension in the hip joint is carried out with a small swing (up to 13-15 °) due to the inhibitory action of the ileum-femoral ligament. A sagittal axis around the hip joint leads to the removal and reduction of the limb in relation to the median line (up to 80-90 °). The total volume of rotational movements (around the vertical axis) reaches 40-50 °. In the joint, circular motion is possible.

In general, the volume of movements performed in the hip joint is much less than in the shoulder joint. The hip joint, however, is stronger, strengthened by powerful ligaments and strong muscles.

On the roentgenogram of the hip joint, the head of the femur is rounded, near its medial surface is visible in the form of a depression in the fossa of the head. A large spit is located on the line between the superior anterior iliac spine and the ischial hillock. The contours of the X-ray joint gap are clear.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8]

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