Chemical, thermal, sunburn foot skin: degree, first aid, how to treat
Burn is an open skin lesion caused by external factors. Burns can occur on any part of the skin, including the leg.
Causes of the foot burn
The main factors that cause burns are the following:
- Thermal - open fire, contact with hot objects or hot liquids, friction.
- Electric - an arc arising from high voltage current, low voltage currents in electrical appliances, lightning discharge.
- Cold - strong frost, contact with metal objects in severe frost, contact with cold gases (liquid oxygen).
- Chemical - household chemicals (bleach, acid, alkali, etc.)
- Radiation - burns caused by a long stay in the sun; prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet lamp; influence of radioactive radiation.
Factors contributing to the occurrence of burns to the feet are:
- Lack of supervision of children.
- Low socio-economic culture.
- Harmful habits (smoking, alcohol or drug addiction).
- Quality, age of residential or office space.
- Defective electrical appliances.
- The presence of open sources of fire.
- Work in hot shops, welding, production related to cooking, construction work, etc.
- Use of water with a temperature above 50 degrees.
Painful impulses with burns lead to a change in the regulatory function of the nervous system with changes in the activity of the respiratory and vascular systems. The consequence of this is a drop in the vascular tone, a decrease in capillary permeability with a decrease in the volume of plasma, a thickening of the blood, hypoproteinemia, hypochloremia.
There is a drop in the bloodstream of denatured protein, leading to intoxication of the body. Further purulent poisoning of the organism develops, caused by a pathogenic microflora with the accumulation of toxins.
In patients with severe lesions, all types of metabolic processes are violated, leading to hypoproteinemia, azotemia, hyperkalemia, and an acid-base state.
General manifestations depend on the area affected. With burns up to 10% of the lesion, only local manifestations occur, with a short reaction of the body - pain at the lesion site, hyperthermia, cephalgia, leukocytosis, deterioration of well-being.
If the burn area covers an area of up to 30% of the body surface, severe burns can occur.
As a percentage, the burn injury of both legs of an adult person is equivalent to 38% of the whole body.
If the burn is superficial and occupies the area of> 10% of the human body in adults and 5% in children, and in case of deep lesions from 5% in adults and up to 2.5% in children, after the provision of first aid, the doctor must have mandatory medical assistance with further hospitalization. Such burn injuries lead to a worsening of the general condition, threaten the patient's life and may require surgical intervention.
Symptoms of the foot burn
The first symptom of a burn is severe pain and swelling in the area of the lesion. Depending on the agent that caused the burn, blisters or erosive, ulcerative formations are formed. In severe lesions, necrosis of the tissue occurs. Burns are subdivided into deep and superficial. The course of burn disease is closely related to the area and depth of tissue damage. To date, it is customary to classify burns, based on pathologic anatomical changes in affected tissues.
Burns of the feet, like other parts of the body, are divided into the following degrees:
- Burn the legs of 1 degree. The first degree of lesion is characterized by redness and swelling of the site of contact with the substance or the object that caused the burn. Small blisters may be present, inside of which there is liquid.
- Burning feet of the 2nd degree. Characteristic signs - redness, swelling, various sizes opening blisters, dry crusts (scab) on the ulcerated surface.
- Burn the legs of 3 degrees. There can be simultaneously signs of 1 and 2 degrees. A characteristic feature is a deep lesion affecting the skin, muscle fibers and bones with the formation of a scab. Burns of this category are divided into burns of 3 and 3 degrees.
- 3rd degree - severe skin damage, but not throughout its thickness. Keep their vitality deep layers of skin, sweat and sebaceous glands, hair bags.
- 3-b degree - necrosis of the skin with the formation of a necrotic scab.
- The 4th degree burn is considered to be the strongest of burns, which is accompanied not only by the death of the skin, but also by the necrosis of muscle fibers, tendons and bones.
Taking into account the peculiarities of therapy of foot burns, they are divided into two groups:
- to the first one include light superficial burns of the 3rd degree, the characteristic feature of which is the death of the upper layers of the skin. These burns are amenable to therapy with conservative methods;
- the second group includes burns of 3-b and 4-degree, the treatment of which is impossible without surgical methods.
The type of burn directly depends on the cause that triggered his appearance.
Thermal burns are caused by contact with various sources of heat - hot liquids, flames, steam, hot objects.
The first place, according to statistics, occupies burns by flames.
The cause of sunburn of the leg is ultraviolet radiation of long and medium waves (type A or B). In the area of lesions arise: itching, redness, swelling, blisters of different sizes, infection of the skin.
Signs of such a burn may appear within half an hour. Typical symptoms develop in the first day. There is a secondary infection of the affected surface, accompanied by pain. Itching appears a few days after the lesion, and peeling begins in 4-6 days.
The burn on the leg from boiling water is a kind of thermal burn. The degree of damage depends on localization. The foot burn will heal faster than the thigh. The thigh burn is more dangerous, because the damage will be deeper even with a short exposure to hot water. If the burn has not passed since 3 hours, it is necessary to hold the burned leg under a stream of cool water (do not apply ice).
Burning feet with fire. Thermal burns of limbs occur when careless handling of open fire, contact with hot objects, when extinguishing a fire without overalls. If a burn of the foot has arisen as a result of contact with an open flame, it is first necessary to extinguish the flame, gently release the patient from the rest of the clothes, but the rags of tissue from the wound surface can not be removed. In the shortest time, deliver the victim to a medical institution if he has a deep tissue injury or an extensive wound surface.
Burns from welding on the foot can be obtained for any of its forms (gas or electric arc), due to the fact that. They all give off heat. During welding, a person is exposed to other types of radiation (infrared, ultraviolet).
Professional welders know what happens when the safety rules are not observed. There are circumstances that specialists can get burned. If work is performed by amateur welders, they often neglect protection equipment and wear one protective mask. It should be noted that these jobs damage not only the eye area, but also other parts of the body.
Burns obtained as a result of welding operations can be of the following origin: thermal, light, chemical or complex. During welding, any part of the body that is not protected by protective clothing can suffer.
Chemical burn of the foot. If the burn is obtained by contact of an acid-containing or alkaline solution, a scab appears in the lesion area. It will be soft and friable, whitish in color, not distinguished by the borders of healthy tissues. When acid is contacted with the skin, the burn will be superficial, and if the alkalis gets more deeper.
When exposed to different chemical compositions, the lesions are colored in different colors. Based on this, it is possible to determine which acid was the cause of the burn: nitric gives a yellowish-green, brownish-yellow color; acetic - dirty brown; salt - yellowish; concentrated hydrogen peroxide - gray; when in contact with carbolic acid, the damaged area first turns white, and then becomes brown. With a chemical burn of the feet, the moment is important, that even when the provoking agent is eliminated, the body absorbs toxic substances for some time. Given the above, it is impossible to pinpoint the danger of a burn during the first hours. Correctly diagnose the severity of the lesion and establish an accurate diagnosis can be within a week. After this time, a characteristic sign of a chemical burn will be suppuration of the crust. The degree of severity of the burn is associated with the vastness of the surface of the lesion and its penetration into the deeper tissues. The deeper and larger the affected area, the more dangerous for human health is the burn. The first pre-hospital help with a chemical burn reduces to washing the affected area with cool running water for half an hour. Exception - chemical burns with lime and / or aluminum compounds. In these cases, do not allow contact with water.
Burn the legs with gasoline. According to statistical data, in 50% of cases the burns in humans are caused by the action of a flame having a sufficiently high temperature. This is the fire of a fire, the flame of a furnace, the careless handling of a torch, during a fire, the burning of gasoline or its fumes. Burning of the foot with gasoline occurs when the container is accidentally overturned with flammable liquid near open sources of fire. In this situation, it is necessary to extinguish the flame quickly. Niv by no means can not quickly escape, because the flame will be inflamed more. It is necessary to pour a place of burning water. In the absence of water, you can cover the limb with a dense cloth or blanket to stop access to oxygen to the fire. The speed of pre-hospital care depends on the degree of burn. If this is a I-II degree burn, it should be done within 20 minutes. Wash the place of water damage and make a sterile, not tight bandage. If a severe burn occurs, the victim should be taken to the hospital.
Burns from concrete on legs. When preparing and working with concrete mixtures containing chemicals, safety and burns precautions should be followed, and poisoning must be avoided. Do not allow persons with skin lesions (abrasions, scratches, irritations) to work to avoid complications with these lesions and burns. Some beginners builders work barefoot. This is strictly prohibited, because concrete mixtures can contain lime and alkaline additives that can cause severe burns to the feet. Therefore, when preparing concrete mixtures or laying concrete, workers must be in overalls, goggles and rubber boots.
Burning feet with grass. Quite often on vacation in the forest, park, on the cottage you can find a plant like nettles. It differs from other herbs and weeds in that it has the ability to cause burns to the feet, hands and other parts of the body not protected by clothing or shoes.
The nettle burn causes unpleasant sensations, and in people with hypersensitivity and allergic reactions. There are about 45 species of this herbaceous plant. The distribution of nettle nettle with a moderate warm climate. It is also called jaluga, strelkanka, costaraka.
The burn of this plant is due to the fact that the nettle contains in its structure stinging cells containing knedociles (special hard bristles). Touching them causes an explosion of the cage and the folded stinging strands straighten and hit the victim, injecting a poisonous substance. In the upper part of this cell are silicon salts, and inside formic acid, choline and histamine. It is with the penetration of these substances into the human body that a burning sensation arises.
To help the nettle-burn victim, you must cool the burn place using cool water or ice. Then lubricate with cooling ointments (Fenistil, Psychalamzam). If there was an allergic reaction it is necessary to take antihistamines Zodak, Loratodin and others according to the instructions. In case of severe allergic reactions (eg, Quincke's edema), you should immediately contact the hospital of the nearest hospital.
Another plant that can cause burns to the legs and other parts of the body is cow-bream. There are about 70 species of this plant of the umbelliferous family. It grows along the banks of rivers, roads, on wastelands. All parts of the plant are poisonous. Unlike nettles, when contact with which burns occur instantly, the reaction of the body to a poisonous substance furokomarin contained in borshchevik, does not come immediately, about a day later. The area of the body affected by the burn can be quite large with ulcerated areas. A strong burning sensation appears only after the sun's rays hit the parts of the body exposed to the juice of the plant. There is a corresponding photochemical reaction provoking allergy.
To provide first aid before a doctor comes in such a situation, you need:
- rinse affected area with soap and water;
- to disinfect with alcohol or a weak solution of potassium permanganate, furacillin;
- grease with panthenol;
- give the victim an antihistamine;
- Do not expose burned skin to sunlight.
Complications and consequences
With burns of varying degrees, complications occur. Surface burns are characterized by mild course, quickly heal for one to three weeks, slightly affecting the overall health. The most severe is a burn disease if deep tissue is injured. The defeat of tissues more than 10% in adults and 5% in people of senile and childhood is accompanied by a change in the functioning of the body. Strong pain sensations and a large area of burn lead to overexertion, depletion of the nervous system, which affects the operation of such systems as cardiovascular, immune, hemodynamic, etc. The patients are disturbed by oxidation-reduction and metabolic processes.
The following stages are distinguished during the burn disease: shock (severe disorder of body functions), toxemia (blood poisoning), septicotoxemia (wound suppuration), convalescence (recovery).
The stage of shock is the reaction of the body to an intense pain stimulus, leading to a disruption of the hemodynamic processes, the work of the nervous system, and the metabolism in the patient's body. This period is manifested with burns, the area of which occupies> 10-15% of the surface of the whole body. The duration of this stage is 1-4 days.
Burn toxemia. Appears on the 2nd or 3rd days after the lesion and lasts 7-8 days. For this period is characterized by severe intoxication due to poisonous substances coming from decomposing burnt tissues, toxins of bacteria, decay products of proteins. The severity of this period is affected by the nature of tissue damage (with a lean necrosis it is easier, and with a wet wound due to intensive suppuration, it is heavier). The end of this stage coincides with the appearance of suppuration in the wound.
The septicotoxemia period. Its beginning is considered the 10-12th day of the disease. For this period is characteristic: the development of infectious and putrefaction in the wound surface, the absorption of toxins of microorganisms and decomposition products of dead tissues into the bloodstream. Burn wound surface can infect: the skin and clothing of the patient, nosocomial infection.
The recovery phase, like the periods described above, does not have a precise time frame. Reconvalence of the skin, normalization of mobility and efficiency of the lower extremities are the beginning of the recovery stage.
Diagnostics of the foot burn
Diagnostic measures for burns of the feet include visual examination and collection of detailed anamnesis.
During the conversation with the patient, it is necessary to establish the type and duration of contact with the burn-provoking agent, to take into account the causes that can increase or decrease the strength of the reaction, the age and sex of the patient.
Upon examination, the physician draws attention to: the color of the skin; the presence and type of edema; the nature of blisters; violation of blood flow; the presence of dead tissue and their condition.
Some of these features are determined visually, others by the results of diagnostic tests.
Assessment of pain sensitivity is performed: by pricking a needle, touching with cotton or gauze tampons, moistened with alcohol solution, to the wound surface, pulling out the hairs. The study takes into account the degree of consciousness of the patient and the possibility of a decrease in sensitivity due to the use of anesthetic drugs.
To determine the area of the lesion, specialists use different methods:
- The rules are "nine" and "palms";
- Methods - Dolinin, Lend and Browder, Arieva, Scheme Vilyavina.
The depth of the lesion depends essentially on the temperature of the agent that caused the burn and its exposure.
To diagnose burns, the feet are widely used by instrumental methods:
- Pricks with a needle. Alternately, touch the affected areas of the skin with the blunt and sharp ends of the needle for injection, in order to determine whether the patient feels a difference in touch. If the second degree burns the sensitivity will be increased (when the dull part touches the needle, the patient will experience pain). If the damage of the 3rd degree, the sensitivity will be lowered. With a deep burn of the skin, there is a greater degree of sensitivity disorders, injections to the entire thickness of the skin do not cause pain.
- Use of dyes. To establish the depth of the wound, a special agent is applied to the wound. In this case, the burn spots of 1 and 2 degrees are pinkish, if the lesion is deep, then the color turns yellow. When the third degree is affected, intermediate shades of color are obtained.
- Scintigraphic method. Its principle is similar to the one described above, but instead of the dyes, radioactive isotopes are used.
- Impedanceometry (recording the resistance of an alternating current having a different frequency and fixing the polarization coefficient). In the presence of destructive phenomena in tissues, the polarization coefficient decreases, which makes it possible to determine the depth of the lesion.
- The thermography, carried out with the help of a thermal imager, makes it possible to distinguish between deep burns and superficial burns.
- IR sounding is based on obtaining and recording the reflected light flux of the infrared spectrum and makes it possible to differentiate the depth of the burn.
Burning skin lesions need to be differentiated from other diseases, as well as accurately determine the degree of burn, because the tactics of treatment depend on this.
Diagnosing burns of 3-a and 3-b degrees is difficult enough and becomes possible at a later stage, namely, when the rejection of dead tissue occurs.
It is quite difficult to conduct an accurate differential diagnosis of deep burns at the initial stages, it is of a hypothetical nature.
Differential diagnosis should be based on the assessment of local clinical manifestations. Consider the origin of the agent and the conditions in which the burn was obtained. Absence of pain reaction to needle pricks, epilation test, disappearance of vasamia after a short pressing of fingers and the like testifies that the burn is not less than 3-b degree. If under the dry scab you see a picture of thrombosed subcutaneous veins, then the lesion is deep (grade 4).
With chemical burns, the contours of the wound are clear, streaks often occur. The appearance of the burn depends on the type of chemical.
Red spot on the foot like a burn
If red spots on the lower extremities are found, it is necessary to determine the cause of their occurrence, so as not to miss the onset of a serious disease.
Spots can be located in different places - on the shins, knees, hips, etc.
The outline and dimensions can be different. Sometimes there are patches of rounded shape, occupying a large area, and sometimes there is a small rash. The boundaries of new formations are both blurred, and clearly delineated, convex, smooth, flat.
Color - from pink to crimson.
Anxiety and / or burning.
Body temperature increased, chills or fever.
Deterioration of general condition.
The causes of the formation of red spots on one or both extremities can be:
- allergic reactions,
- virus diseases,
- fungal lesions,
- blood flow problems,
- irritation due to mechanical and chemical effects,
On one or both legs a stain (and / or spots) of red color similar to a burn can form, it is quite possible that this is a benign tumor. Hemangioma does not cause itching and discomfort. It is formed due to the interweaving of blood vessels and besides aesthetic problems it does not harm the human body.
Treatment of the foot burn
The outcome of a foot burn depends on the adequacy of the medical tactics throughout the period of the illness.
With burns of 1 degree it is enough to cool the place of injury and disinfect it (Iodinol, Panthenol). Recovery takes 3-5 days.
With burns of 2 degrees, the wound is treated using analgesics (promedol, etc.). Wounds heal within two weeks.
Patients with burns of 3 and 4 degrees in need of inpatient treatment. All victims who have deep extensive burns need infusion-transfusion therapy. To carry out anti-shock treatment and purification of the body, ringer Ringer, plasma, gemodez, etc. Are used. In case of burn shock, drugs are administered whose action is directed to anesthetizing and preventing oxygen deficiency. Antibiotics are administered. According to the indications, surgical measures can be performed.
Help with foot burns
When the foot is burned, the sequence of the first first aid is as follows:
- it is necessary to create conditions that terminate the access of the agent, which provoked a burn (extinguishing the flame, releasing the victim from the effect of current and the like);
- remove the shreds of clothes that are outside the burn wound;
- to clarify the circumstances under which the foot was burned
- for all burns, except for chemical (caused by lime or alkali), it is necessary to keep the affected limb under cool water (10-20 minutes), then make a dry sterile bandage;
- with foot burns with a large lesion area, fixation of the limb with a tire or improvised means is necessary;
- with burns occupying a large area, there may be a burn shock. In this situation it is recommended to give plenty of water to the victim (water, tea, fruit juice, etc.). A large amount of liquid will help to remove the intoxication that occurs when toxins appear in the bloodstream, resulting from the decomposition of the skin, muscles, fiber.
- relieve severe pain by applying analgesics (analgin, ibufen, nurofen, paracetamol, etc.);
- with deep and extensive burns of the legs, it is necessary to call an ambulance, if this is not possible, then deliver the victim to the nearest hospital by any transport.
Antibiotics for foot burns
With foot burns, to prevent the spread of infection through the bloodstream throughout the body, antibiotics are administered.
To prevent the emergence of complications caused by bacterial infection, patients are treated at the stage of burn shock, toxemia, septicotoxemia. At these stages, medications that exert both local and systemic effects are used.
Antibiotics are selected, taking into account the characteristics of the patient's body and the processes occurring in the affected area. The most commonly used drugs containing silver sulfadiazine, applications or dressings with r-iodovidone, 1% concentration, aqua-match, gels and ointments containing levomycetin. Selection of antibacterial therapy with systemic effects is strictly individual and in most cases recommended for patients with deep lesions and an area of 10% of the body surface. If the consequences of infection are easy, then injections are administered with antibiotic drugs intramuscularly, and in severe cases, intravenous infusions are used.
In case of involvement of bone tissue, doctors recommend using lincomycin. During the treatment of foot burns, putrefactive infection can be detected. To eliminate it, use metronidazole. Mycotic microflora can also be detected. To combat fungal infection, nystatin or fluconazole is prescribed.
The infectious process that appears in the wound can cause serious complications:
- systemic inflammatory reaction when foreign microorganisms (sepsis) enter the blood;
- suppurative inflammation of the joint;
- inflammation of the urinary tract.
In the fight against the spread of infection with foot burns, the main place is given to antibacterial treatment, suggesting a weekly microbiological observation. Severe course of the disease requires the use of combination therapy with antibiotics with simultaneous administration of 2 or 3 drugs.
The intake of vitamin A, B, C, B vitamin supplements is recommended for foot burns.
Vitamin E promotes the healing of the skin without the formation of scars. In addition to internal use, it can be used for applications directly on the wound after cooling the burned surface. Oily region of vitamin E should be applied to the burn surface. Dosages: children - 100-300 units, adults: 200-800 units. This amount of vitamin is recommended to be used daily until the recovery stage.
Vitamin A must be taken to assimilate vit. E. Recommended doses are 25,000 to 5,000,000 units. Per day.
Vitamin C. For the removal of stress, reduce infection and to stimulate the restoration of the affected tissue, recommended intake of 100-1000 mg of vitamin C.
Vitamins of group B have a calming effect. The daily norm is 10-50 mg B, B2 and B6.
Physiotherapeutic methods are included in the complex of therapeutic measures for foot burns. Physiotherapeutic effect enables:
- inhibit the vital activity of microorganisms;
- accelerate the recovery of epithelial tissues;
- increase blood flow at the site of exposure;
- to prevent post-burn scars;
- stimulate immunity.
UV-irradiation is used for burns of legs of I-II degree.
- Diadynamic currents. These activities are carried out for pain relief.
- Electrolight baths in a complex with aeroionization of negatively charged particles are recommended during an open mode of therapy.
- Paraffin-oil wraps contribute to the rapid regeneration of tissues. Take one part of cottonseed oil or fish oil and three parts of paraffin. The heated mixture is applied to the burn wound. Then cover with a gauze napkin and bandage. Leave for a few days. The procedure, thanks to the thermal and compression effects, promotes the rapid healing of the wound.
- UZT (ultrasound therapy). It is used to improve the body's resistance and resorption of post-burn scars.
- IR-irradiation stimulates blood circulation due to the appearance of a thermal effect. This therapy reduces inflammation and promotes tissue regeneration.
- Radon and hydrogen sulphide baths are used for resorption of scars and contractures.
- Massage. In the acute stage, the segmental-reflex type of massage is recommended, which has an analgesic effect, which removes puffiness, which reduces tissue acidosis. Massage of the burn wound is recommended during the scar formation. After oil-paraffin baths or applications, rubbing, stroking, stretching, sawing, hatching are used. The duration of the procedure is from 5 to 20 minutes. Periodicity - every day or every other day.
- Shower massage improves blood and lymph flow, increases immunity, has a tonic effect, reduces pain syndrome, which is necessary during the reconvalescence of burn injury.
Alternative agents are especially effective in thermal household burns. In order for such a burn to heal faster and leave no traces on the skin, timely and adequate help is needed.
With thermal burns of a mild degree, potato starch can be used. On the affected area, apply a thick layer of starch, cover with cotton and do not tightly bandage.
Effective, with burns of feet boiling water, sheets of fresh cabbage. They attach to the damaged area and pribintovat to the limb. The pain will gradually pass.
Alternative drugs help not only with a reduction in pain. They are also effective because they do not allow the development of edema and blisters. To prevent the appearance of blisters on the burned skin three times a day, apply a thick layer of toothpaste for 60 minutes. In addition to toothpaste, a tooth powder, diluted with water to a creamy state, is also suitable. If the burn of the foot was small, the result will become noticeable after the first application.
Effective when burning a foot with boiled water, grated raw potatoes. Kashitsu put on the affected area and fixed with a bandage. The change should be made when the mass is heated.
Propolis and St. John's wort have a positive effect with shallow foot burns. Propolis (20 g) is cooled to a solid state and chopped, pour 1 tbsp. 96% with medical alcohol. Insist 10 days, shaking daily. At the end of the process, strain. Pour 2 tbsp. Sunflower oil (unrefined) 4 tbsp. Spoons of flowers of St. John's wort. Leave the mixture in the sun for two weeks, without forgetting to mix the mixture. Tincture of propolis is combined with St. John's wort oil. The agent should be applied to sterile cotton cloth, fixed with a bandage. Change the dressing after 4 hours.
An effective remedy for the burnt feet is a onion with dandelion flowers. Middle onion finely crumble, add 20 pcs. Dandelion flowers. Blend the mixture with unrefined sunflower oil. Boil for 20 minutes. With a weak boil and strain. Store the product in the refrigerator. Apply to damaged places hourly.
Doctors-homeopaths with foot burns advise effective preparations based on herbal ingredients such as:
- Complex Arnica 30 (Arnica) and Aconite 30 (Aconit). The greatest effect is with first degree burns.
- Complex Arnica 30 (Arnica), Aconit 30 (Cantharis 30) promotes the rapid healing of second-degree burns and blisters that appear.
- Opium 1M (Opium 1M) is suggested to be used if the patient is in a state of shock and is not sensitive to pain.
- Sulphuricum acidum 30 (Sulfuricum acidum 30) is an excellent remedy for burns in household chemicals.
In severe deep burns of the legs, the following types of operations can be used as an element of therapy:
- amputation of limb;
- skin transplantation.
Necrotomy is the excision of the resulting scab in case of a deep lesion. Necrotomy is performed urgently to restore blood supply to tissues. Such intervention makes it possible to clean the wound qualitatively and minimize the risk of suppuration, which subsequently will help to speed recovery.
Necrectomy. This intervention is carried out in several stages with extensive and deep burn wounds. It is a gentle method, because the tissue that has lost vitality is carried out for several operations.
Limb amputation is an extreme method of treating severe foot burns. It is recommended if no positive therapeutic effect is achieved by other methods or necrosis with an irreversible change in tissues has begun.
The described types of interventions are the first stage of surgical treatment. After it go to the next stage - skin transplantation.
Skin transplantation is necessary to close wounds that have a large area. Most often, autoplasty is performed - transplanting the patient's own skin flap from other parts of the body.
Skin transplantation should be done to close a large wound. Most often, autoplasty is performed, i.e. The patient's own skin is transplanted from other parts of the body. In the modern world, the following methods of transplantation have become widespread:
- plastic by nearby tissues, which is suitable for deep burn wounds of small size. In this case, from the adjacent healthy areas take small areas of the skin and cover them with a wound surface;
- free skin plastic is performed with large wounds. Using special equipment, the patient is excised a skin flap from the healthy part of the body (abdomen, buttock) and closes the affected area.
Preventive measures of foot burns contain the following:
- observance of safety rules with sources of fire, caution in cooking, with household appliances containing hot water;
- use of serviceable electrical appliances, electrical wiring, and also to prevent the games of young children with electricians;
- in order to prevent injuries at work, it is necessary to strictly implement the safety rules when working with combustible, hot, chemical substances, electrical appliances, etc .;
- storage of chemicals in tightly closed containers in special rooms, household chemicals should be stored in places inaccessible to children.
The prognosis of the outcome of a burn injury depends on the timeliness of the provision of pre-medical and medical care, treatment tactics, the presence of concomitant diseases, immune forces of the body. A comprehensive assessment of the patient's condition with a burned foot will allow the appointment of adequate treatment, prevent or reduce the risk of complications. The favorable prognosis depends on the area and depth of the foot burn. The smaller the area and the depth of the lesion, the faster the patient will be able to return to normal life.