Ceraxon belongs to the pharmacological group of drugs nootropic and psychostimulating effects on the central nervous system and is a means for improving the metabolism of brain cells. ATX code is N06B X06.
Other trade names: Citicoline, Citimax, Cytokone, Neuroxone, Neocebron, Diphosphocin, Somazine.
Indications of the ceraxon
The drug Ceraxon is used to treat neurological complications and reduce the severity of the consequences of acute disorders of cerebral circulation due to ischemic or hemorrhagic brain stroke, craniocerebral trauma (accompanied by diffuse axonal brain injuries).
Also, Ceraxon is intended for the correction of mental, sensory and motor disorders (including dementia, extrapyramidal syndromes, amnesia, etc.) caused by neurosurgical interventions and various latent encephalopathies of a degenerative nature.
The neuroprotective effect of the preparation Ceraxon provides the active pharmacological substance citilcoline, which is an analogue of the natural cytidine 5-diphosphocholine natural nucleoside phosphate, a precursor of the molecules lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) and other phospholipids of the cell membranes of neurons and neuroglia.
By integrating into the brain cells and supplying them with choline necessary for the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, Ceraxon promotes the activation of acetylcholine synthesis (which decreases in conditions of brain ischemia), takes part in the production of endogenous phospholipids of cell membranes, improves oxygen supply to the cells, reduces cerebral edema, and prevents peroxidation of lipids in brain tissue cells.
As a result, the stability of membranes of dopaminergic nerve cells increases, which leads to normalization of cerebral metabolism. In addition, the effect of citicoline increases dopamine levels and increases the sensitivity of its receptors, which are responsible for the most important functions of the central nervous system: motivation, attention, memory, cognitive abilities, coordination of fine motor skills,
After parenteral administration of the drug Ceraxon or oral administration, citicoline enters the systemic circulation; bioavailability is almost 99% (regardless of the form of the drug used). The maximum plasma concentration in the plasma is observed 60 minutes after application, and after 24 hours the concentration reaches the second peak.
In the blood serum or in the small intestine, the active substance Ceraxon undergoes hydrolysis with the production of choline and cytidine, which enter the brain and are involved in the production of endogenous cytidine 5-diphosphocholine.
Biotransformation of Ceraxon occurs in the liver and intestines, the resulting free choline is involved in the production of lecithin and membrane lipids.
From the body, citilkoline is eliminated in two stages, mainly through the respiratory tract and, in part, by the kidneys with urine.
Use of the ceraxon during pregnancy
Since the use of this drug during pregnancy and lactation has been little studied, it can be used in the treatment of pregnant and lactating women only if the possible benefits to the mother are greater than the potential risks to normal fetal development and the child's health.
Side effects of the ceraxon
The use of the drug Ceraxon can cause side effects in the form of skin allergic reactions, headaches, dizziness, hyperhidrosis, fever, nausea, lower blood pressure, increased heart rate, shortness of breath, the appearance of hallucinations.
The possibility of developing angioedema or anaphylactic shock is not ruled out.
Dosing and administration
The doses of Ceraxon and the duration of its application depend on the severity of the brain lesions in each specific case.
The drug is administered intramuscularly - 0.5-1 ml twice a day; the maximum allowable daily dose is 20 ml. The course of treatment can last from two weeks to a month three months.
In acute conditions, Ceraxon can be administered intravenously drip - 40-60 cap / min.
The dosage of oral solution is calculated individually for each patient, the maximum duration of oral intake of Ceraxon is three months.
Interactions with other drugs
It should be borne in mind that the simultaneous application of Ceraxon with the antiparkinsonian drug Levodopa enhances the effect of the latter.
Ceraxon is incompatible with antihypertensive drugs, as well as with CNS stimulants, which contain meclofenoxate (Acefen, Centroxin, Cerutil, Analux, Claretil, Meksazin, etc.)