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Drug monitoring

One of the modern trends in the field of clinical biochemistry is drug monitoring. Monitoring or monitoring of drugs throughout the treatment period is a complex analytical problem.

One of the modern trends in the field of clinical biochemistry is drug monitoring. Monitoring or monitoring of drugs throughout the treatment period is a complex analytical problem.

Objectives of drug monitoring

  • determination of the correct mode and dosage of medications individually for each patient;
  • determining the most effective concentration of drugs to achieve successful treatment;
  • prevention of the development of toxic effects;
  • control of the occurring changes in each treatment period with the possibility to change the dosage of drugs depending on the condition of the patients;
  • study of the interdependencies of various factors in the treatment prescribed.

Clinical indications for drug monitoring

  • Risk of overdose of the medicine used.
  • Lack of expected effect from the applied dose of the drug.
  • The need to determine the therapeutic dose of a drug and it is not possible to evaluate its effectiveness in a simpler way.
  • Similarity of symptoms of a patient's illness with symptoms of a toxic effect of a drug.
  • The risk of interaction between medications used to treat a patient with each other.
  • Cases where the patient's disease (disease) can alter the absorption of the drug, the binding capacity of blood proteins, the release of the drug from the body, the formation of its active metabolites.
  • Development of the opposite of the expected clinical effect with the use of drugs.

Analysis for the lack of vitamins D3, B12, E adult and child

Vitamins are a number of vitally important substances, without which the normal activity of all cellular structures is impossible. Lack of vitamins badly affects the overall indicators of human health and the functions of individual organs.

Cyclosporin in the blood

Cyclosporine is widely used as an effective immunosuppressant for suppressing the "graft versus host" reaction after bone marrow transplantation, kidney, liver, heart and some autoimmune diseases.

Lithium in serum

Lithium ions are absorbed into the digestive tract. It is excreted in the urine (95%), feces (1%) and then (5%). The concentration of lithium in saliva is much higher than its concentration in the serum. The blood-brain barrier is permeable to lithium, and its concentration in CSF is 40% of that in serum.

Theophylline in serum

Theophylline inhibits phosphodiesterase, increases the level of cAMP in cells, is an antagonist of adenosine receptors in the lungs, which causes bronchi to expand. Of the group of xanthines, theophylline is the most effective bronchodilator.

Phenobarbital in the serum

Phenobarbital is mainly used as an anticonvulsant. It is taken orally, the drug is almost completely (up to 80%) absorbed into the small intestine. The maximum concentration of the drug is achieved in 2-8 hours after a single oral intake through 1.5-2 hours after intramuscular injection.

Digitoxin in serum

Digitoxin is a cardiac glycoside, which differs from digoxin by the duration of action, which is associated with better solubility in lipids. Digitoxin is almost completely absorbed in the digestive tract. In the blood serum, digitoxin binds to albumin.

Digoxin in serum

Digoxin is one of the most commonly used cardiac glycosides. It is usually taken for a month. Absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is 60-80% of the dose. Of the blood, most of the drug is excreted by the kidneys. Prescribe digoxin, mainly in heart failure and as an antiarrhythmic drug, along with other drugs.

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