General information about vitamin B13
In another way, vitamin B13 is called orotic acid. It was derived from milk whey ("oros" from the Greek is translated as colostrum). It is involved in the synthesis of phospholipids, nucleic acids and bilirubin.
Orotic acid (or 4-carboxyuracil, 2,6-dioxypyrimidine-4-carboxylic acid) refers to derivatives of pyrimidine bases. In the free state, it is a white crystal with a melting point of 345-346 ° C. Molecular weight is 156.1. In acids, it is not soluble, but it dissolves well in alkalis and hot water. Intensively absorbs ultraviolet rays and has pronounced acid properties, easily forming salts with metals.
In food, orotic acid is in the form of slightly soluble in water compounds with minerals (magnesium, potassium, calcium salts). These organic salts from the cavity of the small intestine are easily absorbed into the blood by simple diffusion. In the blood there is separation of minerals, and free orotic acid is transported to the liver, other organs and tissues.
The close connection of orotic acid with the exchange of nucleic acids, explains its effect on hematopoiesis, shown in pharmacological experiments. The effect of orotic acid extends to the formation of both erythrocytes and leukocytes. In particular, it translates erythropoiesis from embryos from the megaloblastic path to normoblastic. In rabbits, rats, guinea pigs, it increases the number of reticulocytes of periphyric blood, while the number of mature cellular forms increases in the bone marrow. Stimulates erythropoiesis after hemorrhage. Orotic acid affects leukopoiesis when it is disturbed by penetrating radiation. In this case, the increase in leukopoiesis was more significant if orotic acid was administered after irradiation. Orotic acid acts not only on leukopoiesis, but also on the functional state of leukocytes. Thus, orotic acid and its sodium salt increase the phagocytic ability of leukocytes, especially their digestive activity.
Orotic acid takes part in metabolic processes occurring in proteins and phospholipids, in the transformation of folic and pantothenic acids, in the metabolism of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12), the synthesis of the amino acid methionine. It is a precursor in the biosynthesis of pyrimidine bases, participating in the formation of pyrimidine nucleotides - uridine monophosphate and cytidine monophosphate). In addition, orotic acid is involved in the following processes:
- utilization of glucose;
- synthesis of ribose;
- creation and maintenance of ATF reserves;
- activation of muscle contractility;
- growth and development of cells and tissues, in particular muscle tissue (due to the synthesis of ribonucleic acid);
- the creation of reserves of muscle carnosine.
Orotic acid has a stimulating effect on protein metabolism, it has a beneficial effect on the functional state of the liver, accelerates the regeneration of liver cells, reduces the risk of obesity of the liver, helps lower cholesterol in the blood, and improves myocardial contraction, has a positive effect on reproductive function and growth processes. Allows to use it as a pharmacological agent (as anabolic) for the treatment of many diseases of the liver, bile ducts, heart, vessels and muscles.
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The need for vitamin B13 every day
In a day of vitamin B13 you need to use a different amount depending on the age and condition of the person. So adults should take up to 2 g of vitamin B13, pregnant and lactating mothers - 3 g of orotic acid, children - from 0.5 to 1.5 g, depending on the age, babies from 0.25 to 0.5 g.
If you are sick, then the dose of vitamin B13 can be increased even more, since it is considered non-toxic.
Under what conditions does the need for vitamin B13 increase?
For people recovering from illness, it is worth taking more vitamin B13. It is also recommended to do this to people with high physical stress on the body.
Absorbability of vitamin B13
In order for various drugs (antibiotics, steroid hormones, delagil, resichin, sulfonamides) to be better tolerated by the body, it is recommended to take orotic acid.
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The beneficial effect of vitamin B13 on the body
Vitamin B13 has the property of activating the hematopoiesis of both erythrocytes and leukocytes. It activates the synthesis of proteins, affects the healthy functioning of the liver and improves its condition, helps synthesize the essential amino acid methionine, promotes the exchange of pantothenic and folic acid. Vitamin B13 favorably affects the development of the fetus, and is also used in the treatment of the liver and heart.
Orotic acid affects cells, the synthesis of proteins, prevents obesity of the liver, restores its cells and accelerates the regeneration of hepatocytes.
Orotic acid is used to treat certain skin diseases in children, it prevents the occurrence of anemia and can prevent premature aging.
Interaction of vitamin B13 with other elements of the body
For the normal metabolism of folic acid and the synthesis of pantothenic acid, vitamin B13 is necessary in the body.
Signs of vitamin B13 deficiency in the body
Signs of a lack of vitamin B13 were not found by the body, since this vitamin is quite well synthesized by the human body in the right amount. Sometimes it is prescribed for children and adolescents, because at their age the consumption of a vitamin can be very large.
Signs of supersaturation of the body with vitamin B13
With an overabundance of orotic acid in the body, mild dermatitis may occur, which will occur immediately after the drug is canceled. Also, liver dystrophy may occur, but only with a lack of protein nutrition. Sometimes dyspepsia may occur.
Foods rich in vitamin B13
Of the products studied at present, the greatest amount of orotic acid is found in extracts of yeast and liver, as well as in sheep's milk. The main source of orotic acid for humans is cow's milk. The average daily body requirement for this substance, according to most scientists, is 0.5-1.5 mg.
To bring in the body a little orotic acid, you can eat the liver (it contains 1600-2000 μg of vitamin B13), sheep's milk (contains up to 320 μg), sour cream and cottage cheese. So you strengthen your body and will be able to maintain the required level of vitamin B13.
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The use of orotic acid for therapeutic, prophylactic purposes
The current understanding of the role of orotic acid in metabolism has determined the area of its use in medicine. The participation of orotic acid in the synthesis of nucleic acids led to its use in hematological diseases. Thus, in patients suffering from Addison-Birmer anemia, the use of the drug in doses of 3 to 6 g caused partial hematologic remission. In patients with megaloblastic anemia, which developed after resection of the stomach, on the 7-14th day of treatment, reticulocytosis appeared. Then there was a clinical and hematological improvement, which was, however, short-lived. Relapse of anemia occurred in 5-7 months. Even during remission in the bone marrow, microcytosis and megaloblastosis persisted.
Orotic acid was used to treat children with hereditary galactosemia, with the disease either absent or the activity of galactose-1-phosphaturidyl transferase is sharply reduced. Orotic acid is a precursor of uridine phosphate, which is part of uridine phosphatogalactose.
Favorable results were obtained with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver. In particular, potassium orotate in a dose of 1-2 grams per day, used for a month, increases the concentration of serum albumins and increases the cholesterol esterification coefficient. In an even more moderate dose (0.5 g per day for 3-4 weeks), potassium orotate proved useful in patients with liver cirrhosis, icteric cirrhosis, and secondary cholangiogenic hepatitis. Small doses of orotic acid 0.1-0.2 g per day are recommended for normalization of liver function.
Successful use of potassium orotate is used in case of cardiac failure. After 30-50 days of this drug added to cardiac glycosides and diuretic, clinical improvement was observed. In patients with coronary heart disease, oric acid, used for 22-25 days at 2-3 grams per day, led to an improvement in electrocardiographic and other electrophysiological parameters of the heart in those patients who had changed before these parameters. In the complex treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction, a combination of orotic acid in 1.5 g / day with 60 mg folic acid and with 100 μg vitamin B12 proved to be useful. In patients who received this combination within 2 months from the date of the infarction, the lethality was significantly reduced. In general, the use of orotic acid in medicine has so far been little studied. It is most likely that vitamin B13 will be used in all disease states, when it will be expedient to strengthen the synthesis of protein and nucleic acids.