Lack of B vitamins

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 21.10.2021

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B vitamins are one of the most numerous, numbering more than twenty substances that dissolve in water. Their contribution to the normal work of the human body is invaluable. A lack of B vitamins can lead to significant disruptions in its work.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8]

The reasons for the lack of vitamins of group B

The main feature of substances belonging to the vitamins of this group is their property not to be cumulated in the body, being derived from it together with urine. This fact puts the person before the choice: either to constantly replenish their reserves and feel excellent, or to feel their lack, which is fraught with the development of various pathologies.

But there is also a feedback - the reasons for the lack of B vitamins - can be hidden in the already existing pathologies and negative influences in the body.

Sources that can cause this deficit are extensive, but we recall the most common ones:

  • Studies have shown that in a situation where people fall into a stressful situation, their needs for vitamin B increase in ten, whereas B2, B5, B6 begin to be "processed" by the body in a fivefold volume, which naturally requires their urgent replenishment.
  • With pathological damage to the digestive organs (gastritis, colitis), a failure occurs during the synthesis of such substances, which also leads to their deficiency.
  • To the pathological clinical picture lead and violations in the thyroid gland. This applies to both reduced and increased enzyme production. This failure leads to a lack of B2.
  • Avitaminosis may be a consequence of prolonged therapy of certain pharmacological agents. Especially this fact relates to sulfonamides, antidepressants, tetracycline antibiotics.
  • The reason for the shortage is the acidity of the stomach, that is, its insufficiency, which requires the need for an additional injection of B3.
  • When using contraceptive hormones in the role of contraceptives, the body begins to require more vitamin B2.
  • Improved processing of the substances under consideration and with increased physical exertion.
  • The female body feels a deficiency of substances during pregnancy.
  • With inadequate and poorly balanced nutrition.

Symptoms of a deficiency of B vitamins

First of all, it should be noted the point, which is especially worried about the female population, is that with the lack of substances from the B series, the fair sex representatives begin to visually observe the loss of attractiveness. Among other things, a person begins to suffer from various negative pathologies. Symptoms of a deficiency of B vitamins:

  • There is fatigue.
  • A person becomes more emotionally unstable, not always responding adequately to various stimuli.
  • Sleep disturbance can be observed.
  • Toxicosis of the first trimester of pregnancy.

The lack of substances of this group can also be visually observed in the condition of the skin:

  • Begin to peel off the epidermis plates.
  • Appear on the face hyperemic spots.
  • The condition of hair and nails worsens, they lose healthy shine and become more brittle.

With a significant shortage of vitamins, more complex and dangerous diseases can develop:

  • Exacerbated or, conversely, the pathological changes affecting the gastrointestinal tract: gastritis, enterocolitis, ulcerative manifestations, colitis and others begin to develop.
  • Diseases affecting the genitourinary system.
  • Heavy forms of infectious diseases.
  • Atonic constipation.
  • Hepatitis.
  • Myocardial dystrophy.
  • Diabetes.
  • Different neuralgia.
  • Radiculitis.
  • Uterine bleeding.
  • Allergic reaction.

It should be noted that the lack of a specific vitamin has its own symptomatic feature. B1 has its own pharmacological name - thiamine. Even a slight lack of it can cause:

  • Increased fatigue.
  • Problems with memory.
  • Cardiopalmus.
  • Shortness of breath, which appears with even a slight load or movement.
  • Problems with sleep.
  • Headache.
  • Problems with food.

If the thiamine deficiency is prolonged for a long time, the person begins to feel:

  • Muscular weakness, which leads to unsteady walking, a violation of statics.
  • When palpation in the gastrocnemius muscle, pain is felt.
  • There are "goose bumps" in the lower and upper limbs.
  • The transmission of implicit impulses, in the formation of which B1 participates, is violated.

This disorder is observed quite rarely due to the rapid rate of absorption of vitamin B1.

B2 in pharmacology is referred to as riboflavin. Even a small deficit of it invariably affects the appearance of a person and his condition:

  • Exfoliation of the skin on the face.
  • Appearance of "Zaid" in the corners of the lips (cracks).
  • Eyelids blush.
  • The number of emerging barley is increasing.
  • There is a violation of appetite.
  • Deterioration of vision.
  • The intensity of hemoglobin production decreases, which can lead to anemia.
  • There is an emotional shift, caused by the emergence of depressive states and irritability.

B3 in pharmacology is referred to as nicotinic acid or niacin. Shortage of it in the human body can cause:

  • The onset and progression of dermatitis.
  • The appearance of a constant sound background in the ears (noise).
  • Dizziness.
  • There may be a problem with the desire to eat.
  • Weakening the protective forces, which leads to the often emerging acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI).

Nicotinic acid improves blood flow, reduces the level of cholesterol plaques, and has a beneficial effect on the central nervous system. Consequently, with its shortage, it is these areas that are affected. B4 in pharmacology is designated by the term choline.

  • Its deficiency "beats" on metabolic processes occurring in the liver, and the transport of the enzymes produced to it by digestive organs is inhibited.
  • There are problems with memory.

B5 in pharmacology is termed pantothenic acid. Its shortage is rare, since B5 is present in small quantities in almost all foodstuffs. The main sign of a shortage of pantothenic acid is the often manifested flowing of the limbs (both upper and lower). But its essential defect is capable of causing severe brain pathologies, large excess weight, up to obesity and mucosal diseases.

B6 is also known as pyridoxine. He takes part in the synthesis of neurotransmitters, which includes the "enzyme of happiness." Hence, with a shortage of pyridoxine observed:

  • Drowsiness.
  • Inflammatory process affecting the tissues of the gums.
  • Appearance in the oral cavity sensation of dryness.
  • The inhibition is both motor and emotional.
  • Irritability may occur.
  • Impairment of appetite.
  • Nausea.
  • Loss of sleep.
  • Violation of the synthesis of glycogen and red blood cells.
  • Dermatitis on the face, seborrheic nature.

At its or his shortage there is an aggravation of such diseases:

  • Attacks of asthma.
  • Symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.

B7 medics and pharmacists know as a chemical compound of biotin. This substance works on the transformation of fat cells into energy, which is especially valuable for a living organism. Therefore, with a decrease in its amount below the norm, the fat metabolism fails. In addition, its long-term deficit causes:

  • It provokes the development of skin lesions.
  • General weakness, drowsiness.
  • Impairment of appetite.
  • Appearance of a depressive state.
  • Appearance of nausea.
  • There is a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood.
  • There is an increased loss of hair.
  • Decreased vascular and muscle tone, which leads to a drop in blood pressure.
  • Symptoms of conjunctivitis appear.
  • There is a stratification and fragility of the nail plates.
  • Perhaps exacerbation of attacks of psoriasis.
  • Deficiency of biotin can cause a failure of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism.
  • There is pain in the muscles.

B8 - this substance is still hidden under the term inositol. In case of its lack in the human body there are significant changes:

  • Accumulation of fat cells in the liver.
  • There are signs of a dermatological nature.
  • The development of atherosclerosis is accelerating.
  • Violation of the musculoskeletal system.
  • There are structural changes in the nerve receptors, which leads to problems of a psychological nature.

B9 - this substance in medical and pharmacological circles is known as folic acid. If the body does not receive enough of this particular acid, people with such deficiency begin to feel:

  • Significant decline in strength.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • The protein shell of the eyes acquires a yellowish hue.
  • Even with insignificant loads there is shortness of breath.
  • Anemia begins to develop rapidly.
  • There are problems with skin and hair.
  • This substance is actively involved in the synthesis of erythrocytes, it is simply irreplaceable in the period of development and development of the fetus. Therefore, its shortage during pregnancy provokes a slowdown or a complete stop in the development of the embryo.
  • Irritability.
  • Dizziness.
  • Pain symptomatology in the area of the tongue and abdomen.
  • Nausea.

B10 has its own pharmacological name - paraaminobenzoic acid. In case of insufficient receipt of B10:

  • There is a failure during the synthesis of red blood cells (red blood cells).
  • There is a violation in the work of the intestine. The disorder can lead to diarrhea, constipation, flatulence and other manifestations of it.
  • Appearance of signs of anemia.
  • Neurasthenia.
  • A deficiency of parahaminobenzoic acid and on the human skin is also noticed.
  • Increased brittleness, loss and early graying of hair.
  • Headache.
  • Inadequate milk production from a nursing mother.
  • Decreased libido.

B11 - the medical term - carnitine. When carnitine deficiency is observed:

  • Decreased muscle tone.
  • Fast fatiguability.
  • Failures in the work of the heart.
  • Development of dysfunction of the liver and kidneys.
  • Slowing down the splitting of fat cells leads to the appearance of extra pounds and obesity.

B12 is also known as cobalamin. Takes part in the synthesis of erythrocytes - red blood cells. Therefore, its shortage can provoke:

  • The appearance of dandruff.
  • Increased fragility of bones and hair.
  • The fragility of the blood vessels increases.
  • There are signs of atherosclerosis.
  • An upset in the bowels.
  • Emotional instability.
  • Paresthesia in the legs.
  • Appearance of pain in the calf muscles.

Who to contact?

Treatment of a deficiency of B vitamins

Primarily treatment of a lack of vitamins of group B is carried out on an outpatient basis. First of all, to fill the lack of nutrients, the diet is adjusted, which must necessarily include foods rich in one or another vitamin. Therefore, the more valuable and diverse the person's table, the less likely the development of vitamin deficiency and the deficit of a particular substance.

If any circumstances have led to a shortage of a certain vitamin, or the disease has worsened, a certain substance of the vitamin group will help to overcome it, then medicinal medicines (analogues of natural vitamins) are prescribed, which more rapidly replenish, and also in the complex treatment of a specific pathology maintain the effectiveness effects of drugs of other pharmacological groups.

Preparations from vitamin B deficiency

The modern pharmacological industry simply "flooded" drugstores of various kinds with synthesized, semi-synthetic and natural vitamins and vitamin-mineral complexes. Therefore, if the problem is not so essential to support the patient's body, the doctor can designate such a complex. For example, it can be materna, pikovit, undovit, vitrum, benfogamma and many others.

  • Materna is a vitamin and mineral complex specially designed for pregnant women or women who are only planning to conceive. Reception mode - one tablet once a day. If necessary, this dosage can be corrected by a doctor.

If there is a shortage of a certain vitamin B substance, then the doctor prescribes to his patient more specific preparations for a deficiency of B vitamins.

With a deficiency of B1, such drugs as thio-vitamin, thiamine, aneurine, and thiamine pyrophosphate can effectively compensate for its shortage.

The drug is introduced into the patient in various ways. What method is preferred by the attending physician only. B1, depending on the clinical picture, can be administered subcutaneously, intramuscularly, intravenously or orally.

The daily dosage of this vitamin is caused by sexual and age-related as well.

For men, the daily amount of B1 is from 1.2 to 2.1 mg. A woman should receive it in the range of 1.1 to 1.5 mg, while during pregnancy this dosage is increased by 0.4 mg, and during lactation by 0.6 mg. Older people should consume daily from 1.2 to 1.4 mg of thiamine. For babies, the dosage used depends on the age and falls within the limits of 0.3 to 1.5 mg.

Starting parenteral administration should be started with a small dosage and with adequate tolerability, the amount administered can be increased, the administered dosage of the drug varies, and depending on the active substance active. For example, in the thiamine chloride solution for adults, 20-50 mg is prescribed, and when a thiamine bromide solution is administered, 30-60 mg once a day.

Children this ratio is thiamine chloride - 12.5 mg or thiamine bromide - 15 mg.

The duration of the treatment course can be from 10 to 30 days.

Simultaneously, other medications can be added to the protocol of treatment, the basis of which are vitamins of a number of B.

In the case of a lack of vitamin B2, in addition to adequate nutrition, the doctor prescribes such drugs as riboflavin, beflavin, lactoben, betavitam, vitamin B2, ribovin, ovoflavin, vitaplex B2, lactoflavin, flavitol, vitaflavin, beflavit, flavaxin.

The drug is administered orally for an adult patient at 5 to 10 mg per day. If the patient's condition is severe, then this dose can be increased and taken at 10 mg three times throughout the day. Duration of treatment is from two weeks to one and a half months.

In small patients, depending on the age, the drug is administered in a dosage of 2 to 5 mg, and in a severe clinical picture and up to 10 mg per day.

The necessary justified daily dosage is for adults - about 2.5 mg, for people whose work is associated with high physical exertion - up to 3 mg. Newborn half a year to a year - 0.6 mg. Babies, whose age falls into the interval:

  • from year to year and a half - 1.1 mg;
  • from one and a half to two - 1.2 mg;
  • from two to four - 1.4 mg;
  • from four to six, 1.6 mg;
  • from six to ten, 1.9 mg;
  • from 11 to 13 - 2.3 mg;
  • from 14 to 17 (young men) - 2.5 mg;
  • from 14 to 17 (girls) - 2.2 mg.

Treatment for vitamin B3 deficiency reduces to the appointment of the drug nicotinamide, the active substance of which is nicotinic acid. Or its analogues pelmen, benikod, nikamid, aminicotin, niacinamide, endobion, nicofort, beepella, niacetite, nicotop.

The drug nicotinamide is administered after meals at a dosage of 15-25 mg for adults and 5-10 mg for children. Usually, two appointments are given throughout the day.

Orally, nicotinic acid is administered in an amount of 50 mg per day.

Every day a healthy body should receive at least 4 g of vitamin B4, in a stressful situation this figure increases to 6 mg. Suitable preparations gliatilin, choline.

The adult patient is assigned one capsule throughout the day along with the food. Duration of treatment - up to a month.

When there is a deficiency in the body of a patient pantothenic acid or B5. The daily need for an adult organism in this substance is 5 mg, and with heavy physical exertion and up to 7 mg. For small children, this figure is 2 ml, for schoolchildren - 4 mg.

  • Deficiency of vitamin B6 is compensated by taking a drug pyridoxine hydrochloride or pyridoxine.

The drug for prophylactic purposes is taken in a daily dosage: adults - 2 - 5 mg; children - 2 mg.

For medical purposes: adults - 20 - 30 mg one - two times throughout the day; small patients - the dose is prescribed by the attending doctor depending on the weight of the child's body.

Pyridoxine in solutions is administered subcutaneously, intramuscularly or intravenously: children 20 mg per day; adults - 50 - 100 mg daily allowance.

The duration of the course is from two weeks to a month. If necessary, after the break, the course can be repeated.

In the case when a lack of vitamin B7 is detected, a specialist can prescribe such a medicine as biotin, or its analogs are excited, femicode, selenzin, deacur, beauty, perfexyl, medobyotin, vitrum, aneran, imidine.

  • Biotin is prescribed for two tablets in the process of eating, once during the day.

If studies show that the patient suffers from a B8 deficiency, he begins to receive inositol, inositol. Its daily dosage for an adult is 1-1.5 g. At treatment, the daily dosage is from 0.6 to 2.4 g. The starting amount is 0.6-0.8 g, which gradually increases with normal tolerance of the drug.

When Vitamin B9 is deficient, the treating doctor introduces folic acid in the protocol of treatment, or its analogues: mamifol, ascofol, folacin, folicle.

The starting dose of the drug is 1 mg per day for children and adults. Subsequently, with normal tolerability, this amount is increased, bringing adults up to 5 mg, children - at the discretion of the treating doctor.

Duration of treatment - up to a month.

  • When diagnosing a B10 deficiency, the doctor needs to inject the patient with parahaminobenzoic acid, the dosage of which is 0.1 to 0.5 g three to four times throughout the day. The duration of therapy is 20 days.

In the case when there is a shortage of vitamin B11 (carnitine), drugs are prescribed with its base component.

The daily need for this substance corresponds to the figures from 0.3 to 1.5 g, depending on the age of the patient and his need to engage in heavy physical or mental labor.

  • Carnitine is administered intravenously drip, in the absence of allergy to the drug, the dose is 5-10 ml of a 10% solution, which is diluted immediately before infusion of 200 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride solution.

In the form of capsules, take one twice a day.

Deficiency in the body of vitamin B12, the attending physician can be suppressed by cyanocobalamin, vibicon, vitamin B12, astenin B12, astigmat B12, dankavit B12, kobavit and others.

  • Cyanocobalamin is taken as a solution administered intravenously. The prescribed amount of the drug is 0.1 to 0.2 mg once daily. In this case, the medication is prescribed a day before the onset of remission. If necessary, the dosage of the drug can be changed to a daily intake of 0.1 - 0.5 mg. The course of treatment is mostly ten days.

Nutrition with a deficiency of B vitamins

Products - this is the main source of energy, vitamins and minerals, which directly participate in all processes occurring in the body. Therefore, nutrition with a lack of B vitamins should capture all those products that are able to replenish their daily supply. Since each vitamin has its preferential preferences, therefore, we will consider which foods are most rich in one or another substance.


Products |

IN 1

Meat, by-products: brains, kidneys, liver.
Whole grain, black bread.
Dried fruits.
Cereals: brown rice, buckwheat, barley, oatmeal, semolina.
Plants family legumes: peas, beans.
Fresh egg yolk.
In a small amount of butter.
Sweet pepper, spinach, Brussels sprouts, potatoes.
Meat of cod.
50% of thiamine is broken down by heat treatment and freezing.

AT 2

Chicken eggs.
Meat and liver: kidney, liver, heart.
Milk and dairy products: hard cheese, cream, milk, cottage cheese, kefir, butter and others.
Groats: buckwheat and oatmeal.
Rye flour, confectionery and brewer's yeast.
Coffee beans, black tea.
Spinach, another leaf salad.

AT 3

Meat: poultry, fat pork, lamb, veal.
A fish.
By-products: kidneys, brains, liver (beef), heart.
Nuts are best hazelnuts and Wolves (walnuts).
White mushrooms.
Green vegetables.
Brewer's yeast.
Slightly less:
Cereals: buckwheat, pearl barley.
Vegetables: white cabbage, cauliflower, kohlrabi, eggplant, asparagus, carrots, tomatoes, sweet pepper, garlic.
Peaches, melon and apricots.
Sweets reduce the content of B3 in the human body. Freezing does not affect this vitamin, whereas during heat treatment, half of B3 "leaves".

AT 4

Meat, fish, eggs.
Sour-milk products, especially cottage cheese.
Different nuts.
Decoctions of medicinal herbs: mother - and - stepmother, plantain, St. John's wort, yarrow, chicory, dandelion.

AT 5

Baking and brewing yeast.
Dairy products.
Liver, kidneys, other offal.
Whole-grain bread, uncooked grain.
Dishes from not crushed croup.
Raw egg yolk.
Salad vegetables and green parts of cultivated plants: tops of carrots, onions, radish, radishes.
Green tea.
Meat of turkey and fish.
Royal royal jelly.
Sunflower seeds.
Oat flakes.

AT 6

Meat: rabbit, chicken and lamb.
A fish.
Yeast and wheat bread.
The liver of beef.
Cod liver.
Egg yolk.
Nuts: peanuts, Greek.
Porridge: pearl barley, wheat, barley.
Vegetables: colored and red cabbage, garlic, potatoes, tomatoes.
Bakery products from wholemeal flour.

AT 7

Liver of beef, heart, kidneys.
Fresh yolk of a chicken egg.
Oat flakes.
Nuts: almonds, peanuts, greek.
Peas and carrots.
Rice bran.
Orange and apple.
Somewhat less in:
Cottage cheese and other fermented milk products.
Vine and plums.
White cabbage, cauliflower.
In unpolished rice.

AT 8

Meat of veal and pork.
Wheat germ and bran.
Wild rice.
Fish caviar and fish.
Dried fruits.
Whole grains and other wholemeal products.
Sesame and oil from it.
Brewer's yeast.
From vegetables: various cabbage, carrots, onions.
Berries and fruits: watermelons, blackberries, grapefruit, gooseberries, citrus fruits, raisins, nutmeg.

AT 9

All by-products: liver, brains (veal), kidneys.
Beans: peas, beans.
Egg yolks.
Beer and baker's yeast.
Any cheeses: melted, rennet, hard.
Fish caviar and fish (horse mackerel, tuna, cod, salmon).
Kashi: oatmeal, barley, oats, buckwheat, millet.
Vegetables: carrot, pumpkin, eggplant, asparagus, cabbage, sweet red pepper, beets, tomatoes, cucumbers, lentils.
Fruits and vegetables: bananas, oranges, currants, apricots, strawberries, watermelon, avocado, melon, peach, raspberry, rosehip.
Greens: spinach, lettuce, onion greens.
Nuts: peanuts, almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts.
Herbal cultures: peppermint and lemon mint, millennial, dandelion, birch, nettle, plantain.
Chicken meat, beef, lamb, pork.


By-products: kidneys, liver.
Nuts and seeds (sunflower).
Bran (wheat, oats, rice) and wholemeal products.
Vegetables: carrots, vegetable leafy greens, potatoes, cabbage.

AT 11

Meat of poultry, pork, lamb, beef.
Fish meat.
Sprouted wheat
Brewer's yeast.
But it should be remembered that under the influence of high temperatures some amount of vitamin substance is destroyed. Proceeding from this, the daily norm of B11 can only be replenished with food products hard.

AT 12

Fish: salmon, herring, sardines, flounder, trout, halibut, cod.
Seafood: shrimps, squid, scallops, oysters, crawfish.
Meat: chicken, beef. By-products: lungs, liver, brains, heart, kidneys and liver pate. Eggs (raw yolk).
Hard cheeses.
Soy and sea kale.
Dairy and sour-milk products.

Prevention of a deficiency of B vitamins

Avitomnosis, like many diseases and pathological abnormalities, is much easier to prevent than to later deal with their consequences. Prophylaxis of a lack of vitamins of group В is sounded by such recommendations:

  • The first, and perhaps most important, is the normalization and balance of the diet. The products coming to the person's table should cover the daily rate of the whole range of vitamins needed for healthy functioning of the body.
  • Maintaining a healthy lifestyle. No smoking, alcohol and drugs.
  • Exclude hypodynamia. Movement is life.
  • When the first signs of vitamin deficiency appear, review the menu, consult a dietician or your doctor.
  • To pass periodic preventive courses, drinking vitamin - mineral complexes. This is especially true in the spring - autumn period, during postoperative rehabilitation or infectious damage to the body.

Forecast of a lack of vitamins of group B

Many believe that the lack of a vitamin and mineral complex is an unpleasant but not a fatal fact. Indeed, this deficit will not lead to death, but its ignoring can provoke the development of more serious and serious diseases. Therefore, the forecast of a lack of vitamins of group B, with irresponsible attitude to one's health, can be very ambiguous, with a negative color.

But if a person leads a correct lifestyle, taking care of a versatile balanced diet, even with a slight defect of one or another vitamin, it will be enough just to slightly adjust his nutrition and the balance will be easily restored.

If the deficiency of B vitamins is essential and can not be avoided without the help of a specialist, do not ignore this help. Analysis of the clinical picture, the appointment of the necessary supportive drugs and the forecast of vitamin therapy is certainly favorable, while a positive result can be observed immediately after the start of therapeutic treatment.

The human body is a complex biological mechanism and for its normal operation, a sufficient number of different vitamins are needed, since each of them is a valuable link in the overall physio-biological chain. And the lack of vitamins of group B significantly affects its work, causing malfunctions in the functioning, which can be fraught with serious complications without taking appropriate stopping measures. First of all, the person himself must take care of his health, having analyzed his diet and introducing corrections into it. The food should be varied and full, capturing a wide range of different products. But if signs of vitamin deficiency still appear, you should seek the help of a qualified specialist who will help with the formulation of the diet and, if necessary, prescribe the appropriate drugs.

trusted-source[9], [10], [11], [12], [13]

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