^
A
A
A

Inflammation of the paraanal glands in cats

 
, medical expert
Last reviewed: 18.10.2021
 
Fact-checked
х

All iLive content is medically reviewed or fact checked to ensure as much factual accuracy as possible.

We have strict sourcing guidelines and only link to reputable media sites, academic research institutions and, whenever possible, medically peer reviewed studies. Note that the numbers in parentheses ([1], [2], etc.) are clickable links to these studies.

If you feel that any of our content is inaccurate, out-of-date, or otherwise questionable, please select it and press Ctrl + Enter.

Pet owners may face a problem such as inflammation of the paraanal glands in cats, which is fraught with negative consequences and requires treatment immediately after its detection.

Causes inflammation of the paraanal glands in cats

Most mammals, including the feline family, have a pair of anal sacs (sacs) between the muscles of the anal sphincter, bounded by connective tissue and lined with squamous epithelium inside. They are called paraanal sinuses or sinuses (sinus paranalis), and in their walls are the glands - sebaceous and apocrine. Each sinus has a narrow and short duct that opens to the side of the inner edge of the anus.

The paranal sinuses contain secretions of glands and cells of exfoliated epithelium, and this secret with an extremely unpleasant odor (with which felines mark "their territory" and stool) can be of different consistency - from liquid to very thick. Most cats are able to systematically free the glands from this secretion on their own: it is secreted during bowel movements, when solid feces and contractions of the external sphincter of the anus are exerted on the sinus.

But some pets may have problems in the form of an increase in the paranal sinuses and their inflammation.

As noted by veterinarians, the most common causes of sacculitis or paraanal sinusitis, that is, inflammation of the paraanal glands / sinuses, is a blockage of the ducts of the paraanal sinuses and a violation of their patency, leading to stagnation of secretions.

Risk factors

The main risk factors for the development of inflammation of the paranasal glands / sinuses include:

  • Chronic constipation or loose bowel movements (diarrhea)
  • intestinal helminthiasis (including those arising from feeding cats with raw meat and fish);
  • violation of obligate intestinal microbiota of various etiologies;
  • hypodynamia and obesity;
  • too soft food;
  • presence of food allergies;
  • decreased muscle tone of the anal sphincter;
  • trauma to the anal region with damage to the ducts of the paraanal sinuses;
  • hereditary predisposition.

Pathogenesis

The mechanism of development of the inflammatory process - the pathogenesis of paraanal sinusitis - is explained by the fact that in the accumulated secretion, an intensive multiplication of conditionally pathogenic bacteria that were initially present in it begins, and pathogenic microorganisms that enter from the rectum.

But why the glands of some animals produce too thick secretion, or there is an increased production of it, veterinarians do not yet know.

Symptoms inflammation of the paraanal glands in cats

The earliest signs of inflammation of the paraanal glands / sinuses are more frequent and prolonged licking of the groin by the cat. Also in the first stage

The animal can demonstrate its discomfort during defecation by defecating outside the tray.

Severe itching in the anal area at the next stage of the disease is manifested by restless behavior and attempts to calm it down, "rolling" on the back (sitting on the floor, raising the tail and stretching the hind legs forward).

In addition, symptoms include poor appetite in the animal, decreased locomotor activity, and stiffness in the rear when walking. There may be a slight foul-smelling thick discharge from under the tail, and the area around the anus may be swollen and reddened. On one or both sides of the anus, under the skin, there are protruding areas that are hard to the touch and quite painful for the animal.

Complications and consequences

The most serious complications and consequences of such inflammation are the development of an abscess, its breakthrough (with the outpouring of pus and ichor and the possible spread of infection into the pelvic cavity) and the formation of a perianal fistula, that is, a fistula.

With a fistula in the tissues surrounding the anus, in the anus (sometimes with the capture of a significant part of the sphincter), or in the rectum, a wound with serous discharge and a bad smell appears.

Diagnostics inflammation of the paraanal glands in cats

Experts make the diagnosis of such inflammation based on the examination and the symptoms present.

Differential diagnosis

Differential diagnostics with helminthiasis, inflammation of the genitals and malignant formations of anorectal localization is carried out.

Treatment inflammation of the paraanal glands in cats

If the cat shows signs of problems with the paraanal glands, you should visit a veterinarian who can professionally help the animal by manually clearing the sinuses of stagnant secretions and carrying out the appropriate antiseptic treatment.

It is allowed to use rectal suppositories with ichthyol, which are administered twice a day for a week. Liniment of syntomycin or Levomekol ointment is also used for inflammation of the paraanal glands in cats.

Infectious inflammation with the formation of pus is treated with antibiotics. Veterinarians prescribe medications such as Ampicillin or Amoxicillin (amoxicillin with clavulanic acid); veterinary suspension for subcutaneous and i / m injections Clavil (amoxicillin + potassium clavulanate) - within five to seven days, one injection (the dose is calculated by the body weight of the animal); Cefalen 1000 (Cephalexin) and Cefalen suspension for oral administration.

Homeopathy for animals can be used, in particular, anti-inflammatory drugs with analgesic and healing effects, such as Travmatin (in the form of a solution for injection) or Trauma-gel (for external use).

In the absence of the effect of conservative therapy, surgical treatment is performed as a cardinal remedy - removal of the paraanal sinuses. This surgery is often complicated by narrowing of the rectum or fecal incontinence.

Prevention

Preventive measures relate to some factors that increase the risk of developing inflammation of the paraanal glands.

In particular, the cat should be relieved of worms in time, any intestinal disorders should be treated, and the animal should not be overfed to a state of obesity. It is also recommended to introduce a sufficient amount of fiber into the diet - to increase the volume of feces, which, during bowel movements, will put more pressure on the glands, allowing them to cleanse themselves.

Forecast

Timely treatment provides a favorable prognosis for the outcome of this inflammation, although its recurrence is not excluded. But in the case of the formation of an abscess, there is a real threat to the life of the animal.

Translation Disclaimer: The original language of this article is Russian. For the convenience of users of the iLive portal who do not speak Russian, this article has been translated into the current language, but has not yet been verified by a native speaker who has the necessary qualifications for this. In this regard, we warn you that the translation of this article may be incorrect, may contain lexical, syntactic and grammatical errors.

You are reporting a typo in the following text:
Simply click the "Send typo report" button to complete the report. You can also include a comment.