Most of the fractures are caused by car accidents and falls from a height. Most often, there are fractures of the femur, bones of the pelvis, skull, lower jaw and spine. Fractures are classified as open and closed. With an open fracture in the wound, bone is visible. Often a bone pierces the skin. Such fractures are contaminated with soil and bacteria, and also present a high risk of developing bone infection.
Signs of bone fracture include pain, swelling, inability to carry weight and deformity on the paw with shortening of damaged bone. Treatment: damage that causes fractures can also cause shock, loss of blood and internal trauma. The relief of shock should precede the treatment of any fracture.
A dog that is in pain often does not go into contact and may bite in self-defense. Do not forget to take precautions so that you will not be bitten. If necessary, put a muzzle on the dog.
An open wound over the bone should be covered with a sterile bandage with several layers of gauze. If you do not have gauze, cover the wound with a clean cloth or towel and wrap it around the wound. If the bleeding continues, gently squeeze this place.
Overlapping the tire at the fracture facilitates pain, prevents the development of shock and further tissue damage while the dog is transported to a veterinary clinic. The decision to sew is taken on the basis of a large number of factors, including the severity and location of damage, the time it will take to seek professional help, the presence of other damages and the availability of materials. Do not forget that misplacing tires can do more harm than good. Do not try to lay the tire on your paw if the dog resists.
Always place the tire on the paw in the position where you found it. Do not try to straighten the bent paw.
Effective is a tire that immobilizes joints above and below the fracture site. If the fracture is below the knee or elbow, wrap the paw with a magazine, newspaper, or a piece of cardboard. A roll of cardboard may come up, for example, from paper towels or toilet paper, if you cut it. Position the tire from the toes of the paws to a place above the knee or elbow. While you wrap it with gauze, tie or lace, keep the tire in place. Do not over tighten.
On the fractures above the elbow and the knee, the tire is hard to apply. The best way to prevent further damage is to keep the dog out of movement for as long as possible.
Dogs in shock can be transported in a prone position either on a hard surface or on a stretcher in order to facilitate breathing and prevent falling blood pressure. Damage to the head and spinal cord requires special transportation conditions.
Fractures in which the ends of bones are at an angle to each other or at a great distance should be compared by a veterinarian under general anesthesia. This process is completed by stretching the paw to overcome the muscle forces that cause displacement. The inserted bone should be maintained in this position. In most dogs, fractures above the knee or elbow are fixed with bolts or metal plates, and below - immobilized with tires and gypsum. Fractures that affect joints usually require open surgery and bolting, screws and wire.
The displacement of the lower jaw leads to the development of an incorrect position of the teeth. The jaw must be fixed and clamped together, in order to hold the correct position until complete recovery.
Depressed fractures of the skull may require surgical treatment to restore the depressed fragments.
- Transportation of injured dogs
If the dog is lifted or transported incorrectly, it can lead to an even greater aggravation of the damage. Never lift the dog by its front legs, because this can lead to dislocation of the elbow or shoulder.
Carry a small dog in his arms, pressing to his side with a healthy side. If you have a large dog, hug it with one hand around the chest or between the front paws. With the other hand, grasp the dog in the area of the sacrum or between the hind paws if you suspect a damage to the hindlimb. Hold the dog to his chest, so as not to release, if it starts to wriggle.
Dogs in shock should be transported in a prone position either on a hard surface or on a stretcher, in order to facilitate breathing and prevent falling blood pressure.
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